Toll-like receptor


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Toll-like receptor

(tōl′līk′)
n.
Any of a class of proteins that are located within membranes, often on the cell surface, and are an important part of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors recognize and bind to pathogens or to fragments resulting from cell damage and then activate biochemical pathways that generate an immune response.

[From Toll, the name of a gene in drosophila fruit flies that when mutated affects embryonic development and the innate immune system, from German toll, amazing, great, cool (in Das is ja toll!, That's really cool!, exclamation of German biologist Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard upon observing in 1985 that mutations in a particular gene caused ventral underdevelopment in drosophila, a discovery that eventually led to the identification of Toll-like receptors), from Middle High German tol, foolish, crazy, good-looking, from Old High German, foolish; akin to Old English dol, dull, from Germanic *dula-, dumbfounded, stupefied.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Gilead Sciences presented results from two studies of investigational toll-like receptor 7 agonists as part of an HIV cure research program.
Toll-like receptor 4 and high-mobility group box-1 are involved in ictogenesis and can be targeted to reduce seizures.
M2 PHARMA-June 25, 2019-ArTara Therapeutics Starts New Immunology Pipeline Programme with TARA-002, a Toll-Like Receptor 4 Agonist, Targeting Rare Lymphatic Malformations
Toll-like receptor 4 Asp-299Gly and Thr399ile polymorphisms in gastric cancer of intestinal and diffuse histotypes.
TLR4 is a member of the toll-like receptor family and can recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the main component of gram-negative bacteria.
Hofmann et al., "RIP1 is an essential mediator of Toll-like receptor 3-induced NF-kappa B activation," Nature Immunology, vol.
Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), conserved receptors of innate immunity, homologues of the Drosophila Toll protein, discovered to be important for the defense against microbial infections.
These findings were confirmed in a further study by Shanab et al.; additionally, authors found an enhanced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and release of interleukin 8 (IL-8) [25].
Among the topics are Paul Ehrlich and the early history of granulocytes, the regulatory function of eosinophils, toll-like receptor signaling and its inducible proteins, myeloid cell phenotypes in susceptibility and resistance to helminth parasite infections, and tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells.
This study aimed to investigate the kidney model of AKI caused by rhabdomyolysis to verify the role of macrophage Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B (TLR4/NF-?B) signaling pathway.
It is a so-called Toll-like receptor 9 agonist that can provide an anti-inflammatory effect locally in the large intestine, which may induce mucosal healing and relief of the clinical symptoms in ulcerative colitis.