Toll-like receptor

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Toll-like receptor

(tōl′līk′)
n.
Any of a class of proteins that are located within membranes, often on the cell surface, and are an important part of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors recognize and bind to pathogens or to fragments resulting from cell damage and then activate biochemical pathways that generate an immune response.

[From Toll, the name of a gene in drosophila fruit flies that when mutated affects embryonic development and the innate immune system, from German toll, amazing, great, cool (in Das is ja toll!, That's really cool!, exclamation of German biologist Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard upon observing in 1985 that mutations in a particular gene caused ventral underdevelopment in drosophila, a discovery that eventually led to the identification of Toll-like receptors), from Middle High German tol, foolish, crazy, good-looking, from Old High German, foolish; akin to Old English dol, dull, from Germanic *dula-, dumbfounded, stupefied.]
References in periodicals archive ?
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are proteins that are fundamental in the induction of the immune system and inflammatory reaction.
pylori infection, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), or host molecule response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns that bind to the spectrum of ligands (5,6).
The PRRs mainly include two types of receptors: toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are membrane-bound receptors and can recognize extracellular pathogens; and intracellular PRRs, which include the nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and the retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs).
Akira, "The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on toll-like receptors," Nature Immunology, vol.
LPS is able to activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
The roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are discussed below.
These molecular patterns are sensed through highly conserved pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), called Toll-like receptors (TLRs).
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are among the host defence molecular regulators and can identify different PAMPs of microorganisms (6), like lipopolysaccharide, lipopeptide, RNA, and methylated CpG DNA; this in turn causes inflammatory responses that stimulate the flow of interleukins and other pro-inflammatory mediators (7).
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize a variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and certain host-derived molecules [4].
Growing evidence demonstrates that toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system are involved in the pathological process of diabetes [1-3].