Toll-like receptor

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Toll-like receptor

(tōl′līk′)
n.
Any of a class of proteins that are located within membranes, often on the cell surface, and are an important part of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors recognize and bind to pathogens or to fragments resulting from cell damage and then activate biochemical pathways that generate an immune response.

[From Toll, the name of a gene in drosophila fruit flies that when mutated affects embryonic development and the innate immune system, from German toll, amazing, great, cool (in Das is ja toll!, That's really cool!, exclamation of German biologist Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard upon observing in 1985 that mutations in a particular gene caused ventral underdevelopment in drosophila, a discovery that eventually led to the identification of Toll-like receptors), from Middle High German tol, foolish, crazy, good-looking, from Old High German, foolish; akin to Old English dol, dull, from Germanic *dula-, dumbfounded, stupefied.]
References in periodicals archive ?
sup][3] It is becoming clear that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are directly involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney diseases related to inflammatory responses.
Toll-like receptors of the ascidian Ciorta intestinalis: prototypes with hybrid functionalities of vertebrate Toll-like receptors.
IRAK-4 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is a key downstream signaling component of the interleukin-1 receptor and multiple toll-like receptors.
Role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) in viral infections.
2,8-10) Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the main intracellular/extracellular immune cell receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns of the microbes and foreign particles, including viruses, to induce several immune cell functions ranging from migration, (11) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation, (12) and phagocytosis (13) to inflammatory cytokine expression.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important mediators of the inflammatory response in the first line of host defense by recognition of many pathogen-related molecules and endogenous proteins associated with immune activation.
LRRmotifs are the most important receptors of platelets that include GPIb-IX-V complex, toll-like receptors (TLR) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP).
Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are a group of PRRs which detect a wide range of stimuli.
Expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and MD-2 in the normal equine cornea, limbus, and conjunctiva.
The receptors, or sensors, on cells are called Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and the Nobel Prize was awarded last year for discoveries that showed they initiate the swift innate immune response to infections.
A role for Toll-like receptors in acquired immunity: upregulation of TLR9 by BCR triggering in naive B cells and constitutive expression in memory B cells.
Insulin appears to suppress a particular group of inflammatory mediators known as toll-like receptors, or TLRs, which are a variety of pattern recognition receptors that identify bacterial and viral products and other pathogens.