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 (tŏn′kĭn′, tŏng′-)
A historical region of southeast Asia on the Gulf of Tonkin, an arm of the South China Sea, now forming most of northern Vietnam. It was part of French Indochina from 1887 to 1946.

Ton′kin·ese′ (-ēz′, -ēs′) adj. & n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


(ˈtɒnˈkɪn) or


1. (Placename) a former state of N French Indochina (1883–1946), on the Gulf of Tonkin: forms the largest part of N Vietnam
2. (Placename) Gulf of Tonkin an arm of the South China Sea, bordered by N Vietnam, the Leizhou Peninsula of SW China, and Hainan Island. Length: about 500 km (300 miles)
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014


(ˈtɒnˈkɪn, ˈtɒŋ-)

also Tongking

1. a former state in N French Indochina, now part of Vietnam.
2. Gulf of, an arm of the South China Sea, W of Hainan. 300 mi. (485 km) long.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Desde el siglo XIX otra region oriental en la que trabajaba la Provincia Dominica del Santo Rosario (Filipinas, Japon y China) fue la de Tongkin (norte de Vietnam).
Pierre-Yves Manguin shows that the Mediterranean galleys were used as models for warships in Aceh; Jim Warren shows to what extent the Manila galleon trade with Mexico was threatened by typhoons; Barbara and Leonard Andaya trace both the history and long term impact of 'peranakan' Portuguese in Eastern Indonesia; the late Ishii Yoneo left a note on the Cham diaspora in Ayutthaya; and Li Tana offers new insights in the economic development of the Tongkin basin in the seventeenth century by concentrating on the export of silk and the import of copper and silver which was channeled to the village level.
They were reported then to have lived in the Kwangsi-Yunnan area, the region of China bordering on Tongkin. At this stage we cannot be certain that these actually were T'ais'.