(1962) Bhaca Society: a people of the Transkeian
uplands of South Africa.
In line with Tshaka, Transkeian
Minister of Education quoted by Behr (1988:255) who argued that educators were charged with the duty of restoring the balance between school product and real manpower needs of our country.
Mission hospitals contributed significantly to the development of health services in the Eastern Cape; ~60% of beds for the native population in the Transkei were provided by mission hospitals. When the Transkei became an 'independent state' in 1976, all mission hospitals came under the control of the Transkeian
Unusually, his correspondence from his period in Edinburgh during the mid-1920s has survived, revealing the financial, linguistic and educational difficulties he faced, and prompting cries of despair and calls for help from his family and his sponsors, the foreign mission of the Free Church of Scotland, and the Bunga (or General Council of the Transkeian
Territories.) His hand-to-mouth existence was painfully apparent in his surviving correspondence--he found difficulty paying for essentials like clothing and boots as well as paying rent to his landlady.
HammondTooke, Command or Consensus: The Development of Transkeian Local Government (Cape Town, 1975).
William Fox and Douglas Back, "A Preliminary Survey of the Agricultural and Nutritional Problems of the Ciskei and Transkeian Territories with Special Reference to Their Bearing on the Recruiting of Labourers for the Gold Mining Industry," (unpub.
Although Bizana witnessed some of the most violent unrest, all Transkeian districts had similar outbreaks over the 1960-63 period.(70) In many of these districts, rebel movements--whether called Makhulu span or Congo--showed comparable concerns.
(11.) Sean Redding, `Sorcery and Sovereignty: Taxation, witchcraft and political symbols in the 1880 Transkeian rebellion', Journal of Southern African Studies, 22 (1996), pp.
By December its inexorable advance had extended to Pondoland and the Transkeian territories.(5)
"A magistrate of the Transkeian district of Willowvale provides a typical description of the contemporary suspicion: A bitter feeling sprung up against the Umlungu [white man] who, in order to reduce them to poverty with the view of enslaving them to the western province farmers and depriving them of their country had struck at the root of their life by destroying their idolised cattle".(11)
In the early 1880s, a Transkeian
magistrate complained bitterly about the influence of a Mozambican sangoma in his district.
During the colonial era, comparison was freely made between the Basutoland Protectorate (now Lesotho) and the then Transkeian