In relation to that, Cardenas (2009) states that though socially-oriented paradigms are starting to be observed, transmissionist
and skill-based models continue to be a tendency in many Colombian language teacher education programs.
According to Brownlee and colleagues (2011), research has shown that preservice teachers' who hold realistic/dualistic personal epistemologies seem to also hold nonavailing beliefs about learning and teaching (e.g., rote learning, transmissionist
teaching), whereas those who hold relativist/evaluativist personal epistemologies tend to exhibit availing beliefs about learning and teaching (i.e., learning as understanding, conceptual change teaching).
Moreover, the fundamental issue is to shift the teachers' epistemological and educational beliefs from being a transmissionist
and behaviorist to being a socio-constructivist--without the shift, all the curricular mobilization efforts will become a mere formality.
It was found that the participants generally enacted a transmissionist
ideology whereas the new curriculum was intended as socio-constructivist.
With knowledge left out of the picture, debates have vacillated between 'traditional' pedagogies ('teacher-centred', 'transmissionist
', 'content-focused', etc.) and 'progressive' or 'constructivist' pedagogies ('student-centred', 'process-focused', etc.).
Another way of understanding how mutual learning works in L4L is to shift from traditional metaphors of learning as either transmissionist
or constructivist, to a view of learning as participation in communities of practice (Sfard, 1998).
For centuries, the prevailing assumption about learning has been that the teacher tells, shows, or demonstrates facts, knowledge, rules of action, and principles, and then students practice them.10 By and large, over the centuries, the way in which performance assessments were designed and used reflected this transmissionist
view of teaching and learning.
In practice, however, both face-to-face and information and communications technology (ICT)-based distance programs often rely on transmissionist
, teacher-centered provision of information rather than on interactive, student-centered construction of knowledge.
To these transmissionists
, scientific knowledge exists totally independent of one's mind and is forever static and unchanging.