The treaty ports
of the world were never entered by her visiting battleships.
The Nan-Shan was on her way from the southward to the treaty port
of Fu-chau, with some cargo in her lower holds, and two hundred Chinese coolies returning to their village homes in the province of Fo-kien, after a few years of work in various tropical colonies.
As the Free State was established, Winston Churchill made provision for British forces to be taken north or marched to the treaty ports
that had been retained.
The British were able to force China to grant more treaty ports
under the control of foreign governments and the opium trade continued to flourish.
The first Chinese stamps were issued by the Shanghai Municipal Council for use by local merchants during the Qing Dynasty in 1865, which later spread to other Treaty Ports
The British constructed treaty ports
utilising timber across China after the Opium Wars of the mid-19th century.
It was one of the sixteen treaty ports
, where western countries and Japan had forced the weak Chinese government to grant them extraterritorial rights, altogether relinquishing its sovereignty.
The discourse of free trade, which justified the Opium War and found its expression in opening treaty ports
and low tariff settlement in the Treaty of Nanjing, arose from the joint effort of David Ricardo's economic theories and Gladstone's political practices.
Wang describes how China, unable to repel foreign aggression during the final century of imperial rule, was forced to grant foreign powers access to treaty ports
and inland waters, tariff authority, land leases, concessions, extra-territoriality, and troop presence, severely damaging China's sovereignty.
Under Anglo-Japanese treaty terms initiated with the Treaty of Yedo 1858, Britons accused of crimes or civil liabilities in the various Treaty Ports
of Japan could only be brought before a court system operated by the British Consuls.
Specifically, he demonstrates how treaty ports
weaved commercial networks and redirected new trade routes throughout Asia and between Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
It is remembered as an "unequal treaty," especially in China, whereby Hong Kong was ceded to Britain, five treaty ports
(including Canton) were opened to trade with the West, and China paid $21 million as indemnity for the war.