A study from Sweden found a relationship between respiratory complaints and exposure to trichloramine
and exhaled nitric oxide in 146 public swimming pool workers, of which 17% complained of airway problems associated with work, including hoarseness, cough, rhinitis, and nasal obstruction .
Assessment of occupational and public exposure to trichloramine
in Swiss indoor swimming pools: a proposal for an occupational exposure limit.
Two of these compounds, including trichloramine
(NCl3) and cyanogen chloride (CNCl), are ubiquitous in swimming pools.
Environmental factors likely play a role, such as pollutants emitted from ice surfacing machines in indoor ice rinks, high trichloramine
levels in the air of indoor pools, and cold, dry air.
METHODS: We used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to measure trihalomethanes in water, GC with electron capture detection for air, low- and high-resolution GC/MS to comprehensively identify DBPs, photometry to measure disinfectant species (free chlorine, monochloro-amine, dichloraminc, and trichloramine
) in the waters, and an ion chromatography method to measure trichloramine
Of these by-products, probably the most toxic to the respiratory tract is nitrogen trichloride or trichloramine
, the gas which gives indoor swimming pools their typical smell and which is released in pool air when chlorine-based disinfectants destroy organic matter brought by swimmers.'
Belgian researchers explain that a gas called trichloramine
, a byproduct of chlorine mixed with the swimmers' sweat, urine, and other organic matter, increases the body's level of certain proteins that affect the lining of the lungs.
The problem is caused by by-products of chlorine, trichloramine
or nitrogen trichloride.
The damage is done by trichloramine
- a by-product of chlorine.
In potable water, chloramines can take on various forms: monochloramine, dichloramine and trichloramine
. Monochloramine (N[H.sub.2]Cl)is the predominant species in municipal chloraminated water because it is produced in conditions where the pH is 7-9.
NH[Cl.sub.2] + HOCl [approaches] N[Cl.sub.3] + [H.sub.2]O (Trichloramine
, Nitrogen trichloride)