Ihram(Ihram from the triconsonantal root
[sz][sup.1]n-R-M) is, in Islam, a sacred state which a Muslim must enter in order to perform the major pilgrimage (Hajj) or the minor pilgrimage (Umrah).
In the present volume, Bohas and Dat summarize arguments previously brought forth against an original triconsonantal root, of which I will mention the most significant in the following paragraphs.
Furthermore, the assumption that the verb in Semitic in its unaugmented form consists of a triconsonantal root might be further challenged by evidence from weak verbs in which only two consonants are present, as in Arabic rama, da a (3ms perfect).
Most importantly, the concept of a triconsonantal root cannot account for the phonetic and semantic relationship between words (pp.
According to Bohas, it is the relationship of different surface forms and the relationship of phonetic features and meaning that cannot be detected with the usual concept of a triconsonantal root. In his work, Bohas tries to create a system that assigns a conceptual value to combinations of phonetic features and thus to establish the relationship between sound and meaning.
Synchronically, Bohas has a valid point in doubting an underlying triconsonantal root in this case.
Zaborski, "Biconsonantal Roots and Triconsonantal Root Variation in Semitic: Solutions and Prospects," in Semitic Studies in Honor of Wolf Leslau on the Occasion of his Eighty-fifth Birthday, ed.
(2.) It should be noted that the root of the word, "wither" (which is what happens to the plant) is the same triconsonantal root
(y-b-sh) as the word for "dry land" (Hebrew: yabashah), which the God of Heaven has made, thus underlining the circumstance that God has acted to dry up the plant to teach Jonah a lesson.
Although mu'amara 'conspiracy' occurs after amr 'order' and is listed under its triconsonantal root
'mr 'command', we also note the inconsistency that 'a'ada 'repeat' is under 'alif rather than under its triconsonantal root
As has been pointed out by Andrzej Zaborski with whom I am in firm agreement: "Many of Ehret's comparisons are unacceptable since his semantic method is quite uncritical in many cases" ("Biconsonantal Roots and Triconsonantal Root
Variation in Semitic: Solutions and Prospects," in Semitic Studies in Honor of Wolf Leslau on the Occasion of his Eighty-Fifth Birthday, ed.
I have long claimed ("Prefixes, Root-Determinatives and the Problem of Biconsonantal Roots in Semitic," Folia Orientalia 11 [1969/1970]: 307-13; "Biconsonantal Roots in Semitic," Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego 219, Prace Jezykoznawcze 35, 51-98; "Note on Biconsonantal and Triconsonantal Roots
in Cushitic," Folia Orientalia 16 : 253-66) that a mechanistic reduction of all triconsonantal radicals of the Semitic languages to biconsonantal forms is wrong and that only some triconsonantal roots
go back to original biconsonantal ones; that some allegedly identical roots may have nothing in common, etc.
43-70) the structuring of words and forms from mostly triconsonantal roots
and additional modificators is clearly explained with the help of suitable diagrams.