These sedges have long-sheathing proximal bracts, terminal spikes completely staminate, lateral spikes usually completely pistillate, tristigmatic
pistillate flowers, and multi-nerved perigynia that are beakless or short-beaked.
[=Indocarex (Baill.) Kill in Engl.; highly compound bisexual spikes with the peduncles of the primary axes subtended by cladoprophylls, but with secondary and tertiary floral aggregations associated with utricle-like inflorescence prophylls]; (2) Carex (mostly tristigmatic flowers, peduncled unisexual spikes with the peduncle of at least the lowest spike subtended by a scale-like or ocreaform cladoprophyll); (3) Vignea (P.
Vignea), a tristigmatic species with cladoprophylls that is sister to the remainder of the clade; (3) a moderately supported "Schoenoxiphium Clade" (73% BS; 100% PP), consisting of a poorly supported but monophyletic Schoenoxiphium (<50% BS; 40% PP) and androgynous unispicate members of Carex subg.
Within this distigmatic clade a single reversion to the ancestral tristigmatic condition has occurred in Carex sect.
The broad consensus over the past 100 years is that starting from a Schoenoxiphiumor Kobresia-like ancestor with highly compound inflorescences subtended by cladoprophylls and composed of bisexual spikelets, open utricles, and tristigmatic pistils, each of the remaining Cariceae genera could be derived by reduction (see Reznicek, 1990; Starr et al., 2004).
also possess distigmatic and tristigmatic species (e.g., Ball et al., 2002) suggesting that stigma losses may be common throughout the family.
gibba as sister to all other Vignea species, and its retention of the ancestral tristigmatic condition, we believe that the presence of cladoprophylls in this species is plesiomorphic.