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See Astana.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


(Russian tsəlɪnaˈɡrat)
(Placename) a former name (1961–94) for Astana
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014


(tsəˈlɪn əˌgræd, -ˌgrɑd, -ˈli nə-)

a former name of Akmola.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Astana was known as Akmolinsk until 1961, when it was renamed Tselinograd. It became Akmola, which means "white grave", after Kazakhstan gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
However, over 20 years of development of the former Tselinograd and its modernization in Astana, the Kazakh authorities were able to solve this issue -- by creating a "green belt" of the capital: plantations that girded the city and softened the cold winters.
The first witnessed its birth as a Soviet regional industrial center renamed Tselinograd, where a number of major factories aimed to produce an agricultural revolution in this provincial backwater.
Tsesnabank was established in 1992 in Astana (formerly Tselinograd) and is the country's third largest bank by asset size, loans, and deposits.
In the 1950s, the city became the center of Khrushchev's Virgin Lands campaign and was renamed Tselinograd. In 1997, Kazakhstan's capital was moved to Astana--the Kazakh word for "capital." Since then, the city's population has grown from 200,000 to more than 900,000 and is expected to reach 2 million by 2030.
Massimov was born in 1965 in Tselinograd (Kazakhstan).
The elevator factory is located in Kosshy village, Tselinograd district, Akmola region.
Astana is the last name of a town (Akmolinsk, Tselinograd, Akmola, Astana) that has been developed since the 1830's, but that has been a village for more than 120 years: indeed the village became a town in the fifties, when Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union at the time, decided to transform it into the Virgin Lands' capital.