Result was enlightenment and political awareness in the traditional societies and the rise of educated middle class to lead the later political movements of Pan Turkism
and Pan Islamism and localized nationalism.
The academician added that Azerbaijan is the homeland of Turkism
, since the first republic of the Turkic world was established in Azerbaijan.
Taggart Murphy, Japan and the Shackles of the Past (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014); Francois Georgeon, "Changes of Time: An Aspect of Ottoman Modernization," New Perspectives on Turkey 44 (2011): 181-195; Yusuf Akcura, Three Policies, http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/paksoy-2/cam9.html (accessed March 2, 2017); Ziya Gokalp, Principles of Turkism
Renegado or Apostate from the Christian Religion to Turkism
And as nationalism in Azerbaijan is very much based on the specific idea of Turkism
, Iran, despite the common Shi'ite background, could not serve as a model for a national state combining ethno-nationalism with Islam.
(11) On the contrary, Tajikistan came into being as a result of the rise of Turkism
. From the perspective of modernist intellectuals, Tajiks were the "predominantly rural population of the mountain fastnesses of eastern Bukhara, the only place with a self-contained Persian-speaking population in Transoxania" (292).
Paraphrasing Hanioglu, this renewal raised a double-bind generation: keeping the sultan, while introducing the committee; maintaining the Islamic identity of the regime, yet endorsing secularism; espousing Turkism
, yet professing Ottomanism; advocating democracy, but practicing repression; attacking imperialism, while courting empires; and proclaiming etatisme while promoting liberal economics (A Brief History 202).
The political situation in the Ottoman Empire provided the third complementary context whereby the territorial erosion of the empire made Turkism
as the strongest alternative to the currents of Ottomanism and Islamism.
ambassador said it was being held to pay tributes to all martyrs of Turkey who sacrificed their lives in line of duty especially by foiling the naval onslaught of the Allies Forces in the First World War at the front of Canakkale on Mar.
But the essence of the Turkist state, its fundamentals, its main pillars of statism, capitalism, Turkism
, Sunniism, modernism, social Darwinism, its utopia of homogenous nation and its social engineering are all intact.
The idea of pan Turkism
began to gather support among Turkish intelligentsia with time .
CypriotHellenism and Turkism
, as well as other cultural influences, are all part of the fabric of Cypriot historyand society and cannot be changed.