In essence Mann treats music as a novelist treats any subject, and although there are clear examples of Adrian's music being grounded in reality, such as the irresistible comparison between his early orchestral impressionism and Debussy and Ravel, his development of twelve-tone technique
and Schoenberg (to whom it is really indebted) and a later comparison of the Faust cantata to Beethoven's "Ode to Joy," it is ultimately irrelevant to hear Leverkuhn's music outside of Mann's literary depiction of it.
The correspondence between Leibowitz and the publishing house is interesting and historically important as Leibowitz was the person who brought twelve-tone technique
By plastering the label of "anti-fascist" to Hindemith's opera Mathis derMaler, Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique
, and histories of German music written by Jewish exile musicologist Alfred Einstein, for example (Schubert; Adorno; Potter 1999), we have forced ourselves to "unsee"the nationalist imperatives that ultimately inspired all of them, regardless of the fate that awaited them in the unpredictable political landscape that was the Third Reich.
Seeking the agent responsible for this rupture between serious composition and it's popular reception, Tommasini somewhat predictably blamed the Jewish Viennese composer and virtuoso innovator Arnold Schoenberg, who called into question harmony and created the twelve-tone technique
. The "well-intentioned but problematic venture that Arnold Schoenberg initiated in Vienna now seems a turning point," Tommasini wrote.
Schwartz describes his workbook: "Composed through the use of a variety of common and unusual harmonic progressions, twelve-tone technique
, artificial scales and more, these exercises include random modifications in time and key signatures, rhythms, notes, articulations, dynamics and more." The book's introduction appears in seven languages and includes the following recommendations: read at least five exercises each day, use a metronome as a "reference" (although no tempos are given), and "sight read with a music teacher present." These exercises remind me of the French publications Lectures Exercises (c.
habe sie aufs genaueste studiert" (I also don't understand the twelve-tone technique
and music, apart from superficial aspects.
The musical material remains, but its organisation is transformed with the help of freely conceived twelve-tone technique
, often breached by the composer's Mahlerian reminiscences.
In particular, Mann's preoccupation in Die Entstehung with sensuality (in this case the direct sense experience of his lung cancer and the operation he underwent for it while working on the novel) marks an attempt to link living experience with art, in opposition to Adorno's view of modernist art as autotelic and Schonberg's twelve-tone technique
as a way of suppressing human subjectivity, surrendering agency to numerology and fate.
From Adorno's tentative and hopeful letter introducing himself, to Berg's last letter hoping for more students just a short time before his death, they debate in print about the avant-garde, the twelve-tone technique
, the responsibilities of academic life, and the call of composition; they share gossip, interpret each others' music and criticize each others' criticism.
And the controlling factor of this microcosmic aspect of the music, that's the small aspect--that is, what note follows what note--could best be determined, at least in the '50s, by serialization, the twelve-tone technique
. The macrocosmic, the large aspects of the work--that is the control of time, events in time--had to do with tonality, or pitch polarity, if you don't like the word "tonality." I like the word "tonality." I don't think it has anything to do with triadic [music], although that's what the critics think it does.
In Apparitions Ligeti deploys for the first time his technique of "micro-polyphony," in which multiple strands of imitative counterpoint are layered upon each other in a dense, undulating fabric; one year later he reinvents himself in Atmospheres, a work that eschews the twelve-tone technique
for the pleasures of sculpting sound, its large-scale rhythms built exclusively on washes of tone color that move about the orchestra in great sheets and blocks.
While the ways that Chinese composers have chosen to incorporate twelve-tone technique
or serialism vary widely, many move in a similar way into the realm of pentatonicism.