Researchers in Dr Gopal Sapkota's lab in the Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation
Unit (MRC PPU) at Dundee have identified a new player in the cell division machinery called CK1a, an enzyme which acts to ensure proper, accurate cell division.
These modifications appear in specific amino acids: acetylation on lysines (K), methylation on lysines and arginines (R), phosphorylation on serines (S) and threonines (T), ubiquitylation
, and sumoylation and ribosylation on lysines (29).
[62-65] Two classes of enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs), regulate the acetylation status of histones; posttranslational modification of histones by acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation and ubiquitylation
reactions could potentially be targeted (Fig.
by Trim32 causes coupled loss of desmin, Z-bands, and thin filaments in muscle atrophy.
Molecules, such as APOB, ATM, MIA3, MICAL2, REST, TRAF1, UTP18, TRAPPC8, CCDC88A, and SNAPC1 in the network were shown to bind directly to UBC (ubiquitin C) by proteomic analyses of ubiquitylated proteomes [12-15], suggesting that the various cellular functions including protein degradation by ubiquitylation
may play a role for the expression of muscle color in chickens though the specific roles of each factor in regulating muscle color development need further investigations.
Zinc is known to be required for the degradation of IRAK1 in LPS-stimulated TLR activation both in vitro and in vivo; however, zinc is not required for the phosphorylation or ubiquitylation
of IRAK1 in macrophages .
P Tansey, "Modulation of RNA polymerase II subunit composition by ubiquitylation
," Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Weinert et al., "A proteomewide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation
sites reveals widespread regulatory roles.," Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP, vol.
Tian et al., "Targeting of HIF-[alpha] to the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation
complex by [O.sub.2]-regulated prolyl hydroxylation," Science, vol.
FoxO1 transcription is regulated by acetylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitylation
Epigenetic modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitylation
regulate chromatin structure and gene expression.