Ultra-sonication was done using ultrasonicator
model UP400S (Hielscher Ultrasound Technology, USA) for 4h to uniformly disperse the MWCNTs while keeping the cycle value to 0.5 and at an amplitude of 80%.
The mobile phase was mixed and then degassed using an ultrasonicator
Particle size and shape were determined by TEM in a JEOL JEM 2100 equipment; for this, the PECA nanoparticles were dispersed in distilled water using an ultrasonicator
; then a drop of the dispersion was deposited on a copper grid, where the solvent was allowed to evaporate.
For sequencing on the PacBio RSII long read platform (Pacific Biosciences, Melon Park, CA, USA), the genomic DNA was sheared to 10 to 20 kb using an ultrasonicator
(Covaris Inc., Woburn, MA, USA) and converted to the proprietary SMRTbell[TM] library format using an RS DNA Template Preparation Kit (Pacific Biosciences).
The surface-modified long and ball-milled MWCNTs in 0.5 weight percent are dispersed in lubricating oil by processing it in a probe ultrasonicator
(Hielscher UP400S) for about 30 minutes.
Model L-7612 (Merck, USA) was used.
A low-frequency (20 kHz) horn-type ultrasonicator
(Sonifier 450, Ti horn of diameter 1.1 cm, maximum power 400 W, Branson Co., Tokyo, Japan) and a high-frequency (200 kHz) planar-type ultrasonicator
(Kaijo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were used to accelerate the hydrolysis reaction.
XL 2120 and centrifuge Legend X1R were used for homogenizing and distillation of the graphene solution.
Each dispersion was sonicated for 3 min in a 75 T VWR Ultrasonicator
(120 W, 45 kHz) before transferring it into a polystyrene cuvette for analysis.
Genomic DNA was sheared to a mean size of 600 bp by using an LE220 focused ultrasonicator
(Covaris Inc., Woburn, MA, USA).
Each sample was prepared in deionized water and dispersed using an ultrasonicator
prior to measurement.
sinensis mycelia was accurately weighed and extracted with 10 mL of a solution of water and ethyl alcohol (75: 25, v/v), and then the mixture was placed in an ultrasonicator
for 30 min and centrifuged at 12.000 rpm for 10 min.