(2017a) stated: "Starting at 5 weeks, the portal (right vitelline vein), portal sinus and umbilical veins
(intrahepatic portion) sprouted portal vein branches that, at 6.5 weeks, have been pruned to 3 main branches inside the right hemi-liver, whereas all (>10) persisted in the left hemi-liver.
The first is through the peritoneum; the second is through the axillary, inguinal and paraaortic lymph nodes; the third is venous, spread through the anastomoses between the umbilical veins
and the epigastric, lateral thoracic or internal mammary veins.
The venous system develops from three bilaterally symmetrical sets of veins in the embryo: the cardinal veins, the vitelline veins, and the left and right umbilical veins
. Ductus venosus (DV) is a part of the umbilical veins
and develops as a channel in the liver as the liver grows and impinges on the remaining left umbilical vein
Fifteen milliliters of collagenase (1 mg/mL) were added to the umbilical veins
at room temperature and after 15 to 20 min the digested cells were collected into a 50 mL sterile centrifuge tube by washing 2-3 times with sterile PBS.
Embryologically, the systemic veins of our body develop from the intra-embryonic anterior and posterior cardinal veins, while the portal system develops from the extra-embryonic vitelline and umbilical veins
which drain from the yolk sac and the placenta.
In some foetal domestic animals like buffaloes (Ferreira et al., 2009), cows (Ribeiro and Minglino, 1997) and human foetuses (Hyett et al., 1995), the presence of two umbilical arteries and two umbilical veins
have been reported in all foetal development stages, this is contrary to the present report.
Contiguous spread of peritoneal cancer to the anterior surface of the abdominal cavity is probably the most common and hematogenous spread through the arterial and venous systems via communication between the umbilical veins
, portal system and the caval vein system.
HUVECs were derived from human umbilical veins
that were cannulated, washed with Hanks' solution to wipe off blood, and then digested with 1% collagenase (Sigma, USA) for 15 min at 37[degrees]C.
Minick, "Culture of human endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins
. Identification by morphologic and immunologic criteria," The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.
During the process of calving, the umbilical cord rupture and urachus, arteries and umbilical veins
retract normally into the abdomen, thus preventing environmental contamination.
Experiments with endothelial cells from human umbilical veins
revealed that DAL administration altered the size and shape of the cells by changing the organization of the actin cytoskeleton; blocked formation of new vascular networks and reorganized existing networks; and interfered with the movement of cells required for wound healing.
Holzgreve's lab have shown that cultures of endothelial cells from umbilical veins
break down after exposure to particles of placental syncytium.