The ear may be regarded, fancifully, as a lichen, umbilicaria
, on the side of the head, with its lobe or drop.
The antimicrobial activity of substances derived from the lichens Physcia aipolia, Umbilicaria
polyphylla, Parmelia caperata and Hypogymnia physodes.
The genus Umbilicaria
(lichenized Ascomycetes) in Colombia.
Field measurements on Umbilicaria
aprina in Antarctica.
Crustinic acid, a tridepside from Umbilicaria
Oropogon (Esslinger, 1989), Psiloparmelia (Elix & Nash, 1992), Stereocaulon (Lamb, 1977; Boekhout, 1982), Xanthoparmelia (Nash, Gries & Elix, 1995), and Umbilicaria
(Sipman & Topham, 1992) and unpublished information on the genus Hypotrachyna in the Neotropics.
Usnea sphacelata, Pseudephebe minuscula, Umbilicaria
decussata), and soil algae have become established (Seppelt 1984; Smith 1990).
Crustose lichens tend to be replaced by foliose lichens, such as the rock tripe Umbilicaria
dilenii, and even mosses, and soon the underlying organic substrate gets thicker and thicker.
Los generos mejor representados son Lecanora (30), Cladonia (28), Caloplaca (15), Umbilicaria
(14) y Pertusaria (14).
Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of 3 Umbilicaria
The umbilicate growth form is also common throughout the Antarctic, and includes all the species of Umbilicaria
atropapillata Colmeiro--Gr: Colmeiro (1867).