In the grammar of English for native speakers, as one example, the verb put has an underlying representation that includes semantic information (e.
Long before a mental representation is in place, learners are asked to read, write, listen, and speak using language that is far beyond their underlying representation.
passive structures in English, certain morphological inflections in Russian) but the underlying representation that allows for these things to be incorporated into language are already there.
The essay on "Museums as Contact Zones" takes these issues further, and his ethnographic study of "Paradise," the portrayal of the New Guinea Highlands in London's Museum of Mankind, lauds the creators of this "cultural performance" for allowing the struggle underlying representation
to become visible.
However, accounting for these factors requires the introduction of two very powerful mechanisms within OT, absolute ranking with noise added to rankings at evaluation time (Boersma 1998), and allowing the phonetic realization access to the underlying representation.
Under the principle of richness of the base, such segments could be in the underlying representation and would then surface if these constraints were not ranked very high.
The semitransparency of the blueprints gives the underlying representations
of nature a diaphanous quality that results in the co-penetration of the two elements, as when the graphic lines and text identifying automobile components seem to be inscribed on the body of a tropical bird.
These results suggest that number words do not change our underlying representations
of number, but instead are a cognitive technology for keeping track of the exact size of large sets over time and in different contexts," says study coauthor Michael Frank.
Their specific topics include laryngeal under-specification and richness of the base, underlying representations
that do not minimize grammatical violations, selection rather than optimization of allomorphy, Yowlumne capacity and the enriched input model, derived environmental effects and consistency of exponence, colored turbid accents and containment, freedom and the ability to interpret, restraint of analysis, ternary rhythm, representational complexity in syllable structure, restricting GEN, division of labor between segment-internal structure and violable constraints, and variables in optimality theory.
The chapter focuses in on degrees of abstractness in underlying representations
, with subsections on abstract underlying representations
In this way, for example, neural discharges underlying representations
of "ball," "red," "large," and "moving to the right," link up at the appropriate time.