There is some evidence that epididymal cysts, especially those in conjunction with undescended testes
may play a role in testicular dysgenesis syndrome in which male genitourinary anatomy and function are disrupted, however the long-term effects of this are currently unknown (30).
Those most at risk are men who had undescended testes
at birth, or those with a relative who has been diagnosed with testicular cancer.
Men with undescended testes
at birth, or those who have a family history such as a father or brother who have had the disease, are at a higher risk.
By two years of age, 40% of undescended testes
completely lose their germ cells [2, 5, 6].
Proximal cases are considered severe as they are associated with severe chordee and other abnormalities like prepenile scrotum, disorders of sexual differentiation, undescended testes
or inguinal hernia.
It is understood that bilateral, undescended testes
were recognized by the family immediately after the birth, but the family did not visit a doctor.
The most worrying issue however is that undescended testes
are prone to cancer.
The association of Spigelian hernia with undescended testes
created the hypothesis of a distinct clinical syndrome with a common pathogenetic origin of both pathologies (1,2,5); embryonic testis descent in between the layers of the anterior wall results in testicular ectopia and a secondary Spigelian hernia (5).
This study included 18 benign testicular diseases, namely seven cases of testicular torsion, three cases of testicular infarction, two cases of traumatic hemorrhagic necrosis, two epidermoid cysts, two cases of acute mumps orchitis and three undescended testes
. Nineteen benign extratesticular disorders were assessed in the same report, including six cases of acute epididymitis, six cases of appendiceal torsion, six epididymal cysts, and one case of varicocele (25).
This edition is in full color and has new chapters on robotics, pediatric and adolescent gynecology, and sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence, as well as new and updated content on robotic surgery, ultrasound, congenital anomalies, reflux, urinary tract infection, hypospadias, hydronephrosis, disorders of sex development, undescended testes
, and hernia and hydroceles.
Cryptorchidism or undescended testes
is the most common disorder of the male endocrine glands in children.