He has called for labour historians to cast their nets wider to embrace, for example, studies of the countryside, of unfree labour
, of women, of race, of subsistence workers, and semi-subsistence workers since the early modern period.
Firstly, the white man's industry looks at how the historical socio-political burden of sugar cane as a plantation crop cultivated by an unfree labour
force influenced the establishment of the Queensland sugar industry and affected the drastic demographic and social changes at the end of the 19th century.
A century later, Java still produced half of the total quantity shortly before the founding father of the cultivation system argued that Java's coffee had to be cultivated with unfree labour
in order to remain competitive in the world market.
(2003) 'The fictions of free labour: contract, coercion, and so-called unfree labour
', Historical Materialism 11 (3): 69-95.
And freely-moving capital has its twin in unfree labour
would remain the cornerstone of the capitalist production system that put its full weight behind the paddy, tea, coffee, and rubber plantations across Ceylon, Burma, and Malaya.
It was ultimately through the introduction of unfree labour
to Swan River in 1850 that capitalist social relations were able to advance, and almost 10,000 convicts were relocated to the location by 1868, when transportation ceased (Battye, 1924: 197).
Miles, Capitalism and Unfree Labour
: Anomaly or Necessity?, Tavistock Publications Ltd, London, 1987, pp.
His monumental Brasil Pitoresco (1859), produced in collaboration with fellow Republican writer, Charles Ribeyrolles, recorded urban and provincial Rio de Janeiro, including images of unfree labour
. After decades of neglect his book is now recognized not only as an invaluable historical document, but also as a key step in constructing Brazil's own self-image.
Some form of servile, forced or unfree labour
had existed in Africa for many centuries.