I told the Commission that we were using higher unit stresses
than any practice has established, and we've put the dead load at a low estimate.
where: J(t,[tau]) = 1/[E.sub.c]([tau]) + C(t, [tau]) is the creep compliance resulted from a unit stress
of concrete, E ([tau]) is the modulus of elasticity and specific creep of concrete at age [tau], [t.sub.s] = [t.sub.0] is the time, at which the autogenous shrinkage strain starts developing.
As is shown in Table 4, the average unit stress
in X direction which is perpendicular to tunnel axis is 0.28 MPa; the average unit stress
in Y direction is 20.32 MPa, and the average unit stress
in Z direction which parallels tunnel axis is 20.32 MPa.
Creep compliance is defined as the strain function changing with time under the effect of unit stress
. According to the constitutive model in Figure 1, the creep compliance of the modified Burgers model is expressed as
[D.sub.T] in formula (12) contacts unit stress
tensor and strain tensor, representing dS = [D.sub.T]dE.
In order to relate the results from the analytical model to the AE output, it is reasonable to assume that to create one unit stress
free area, in average N0 fiber bonds have to be broken.
elastic-plus-creep per unit stress
in tension and compression shown in Figure 12 is:
Because of this arrangement, the load application is spread over a large mainframe area, reducing unit stress
and improving structural life and truck performance.
In general, the "creep compliance," D(t), is defined as the time dependent strain per unit stress
that would occur during a typical creep experiment under constant stress and temperature conditions.
The IDF Spokesperson's Unit stressed
that the exercise does not indicate a change in alert levels in the northern sector but is part of the routine training program for reservists in 2018 and aims to test the level of preparedness at short notice.
The strain energy accumulation of the unit in the simulation process was recorded, where [[sigma].sup.i.sub.x], [[sigma].sup.i.sub.y], [[sigma].sup.i.sub.z], [[sigma].sup.i.sub.xy], [[sigma].sup.i.sub.yz], and [[sigma].sup.i.sub.xz] represent the unit stresses
of the ith step.