The classical liberal theorist Anthony de Jasay turned the same basic idea into a more full-throated critique of Rawls and his followers, characterizing theories that view "justice as a matter of social choice rather than, as in the traditional approach, a quality of individual acts" as a category mistake, erroneously treating "justice as something else" (1996, 162)--fairness or universalizability
(213) People can freely exercise their agency--even passing a Kantian test of universalizability
(214)--but nonetheless make mistakes by choosing an option that contains or entails less objective value than another.
' and their concern with exploring the
, as a rational moral process, and emotions, it is
' What is sacrificed by the Constructivist conception is not against the objectivity but merely universalizability
Indeed, Mackie's moral eliminativism is compatible with accepting the usefulness of certain objectivist moral language, including moral judgments with deontological form (e.g., "Governments ought to be ready to help refugees seeking safety"), so long as the explanation of the apparent objectivity and universalizability
of the referents of such language does not appeal to the existence of moral properties and the like as part of the fabric of the world.
What is involved in this demand for universalizability
is nothing less (or more) than the demand to try to step back from one's own particular interests, beliefs, and feelings to address oneself to an intersubjective public domain governed by rules that all can accept.
On a more formal level, classical egoism as a moral theory is thought to disallow universalizability
, not unlike we noted in connection with subjective egoism.
To prove that such objective and rationally acquired imperatives potentially exist for all human beings, Kant resorts to the principle of universalizability
and argues that we ought to follow the practical laws based not on higher conditions (such as the will of God) but rather solely on the possibility to provide universal justifications for their validity.
He says that rule-consequentialism is closely related to a doctrine of universalizability
. He introduces that doctrine as saying, roughly, that an action is impermissible if sufficiently bad consequences would follow were everyone to perform an action of that type.
Subjects reaching the last two stages, called post-conventional, are motivated by their understanding of abstract principles, like those upheld by social-contract theory or by a Kantian-like requirement of universalizability
. Kohlberg and his followers believed that children before adolescence find themselves at one of the pre-conventional stages.
In reciprocity, constitutionalism and its constitutions provide the political with the institutional means to see the normativity arising from it potentially achieve universalizability
, enforceability, and durability with revisability.