(7) The central axis includes the paraglossal, basihyal, and urohyal
bones and articulates with the hyoid horns, comprising the ceratobranchial and epibranchial bones (Fig 4c).
Abbrevation Bones Cyprinidae Clupeidae Anguillidae Total ar Articular 11 3 14 boc Basioccipital 12 1 13 bpq Basipterygium 16 16 c Caudal vertebra 207 28 235 ceh Ceratohyal 10 1 11 cl Cleithrum 27 2 29 dn Dentary 19 2 21 eph Epihyal 16 16 fr Frontal 6 6 hb Head bone 38 4 42 (unidentified) hy Hyomandibular 13 13 iop Interopercle 10 10 mx Maxilla 7 2 9 op Opercle 21 1 1 23 pl Palatine 1 1 psp Parasphenoid 3 1 4 pha Pharyngeal bone 40 40 ptp Posttemporal 3 3 pc1 Precaudal 1 19 19 pc2 Precaudal 2 2 2 pc3 Precaudal 3 2 2 pc Precaudal 178 43 221 vertebra pmx Premaxilla 3 3 pu Preural vertebra 3 3 pop Preopercle 25 25 qd Quadrate 3 3 sop Subopercle 7 7 scl Supracleithrum 19 19 ur Urohyal
2 2 ver Vertebra 28 28 (unidentified) vo Vomer 2 2 Total 751 1 90 842
Many structures have been used to estimate the age of fishes, including scales, otoliths, vertebrae, fin rays and spines, opercular bones, cleithra, urohyal
bone, and hyomandibular bone.
(1) Shape of caudal basibranchial: The basilbranchial (= urohyal
) was flattened dorsoventrally (depressed) in some species, but slender, not depressed, in others.
 Anterior process of urohyal
(Costa 1998a) (CI: 1.00; RI: 1.00): (0) short; (1) elongate.
Davis and West (1992) used ANOVA to show that there were differences in the marginal increment of urohyal
bones of L.
anteromedial tip of mandible at tooth row; 3, anterior most point on urohyal
at midline; 4, anteromedial margin of cleithrum; 5, lateral tip of maxilla; 6, ventrolateral process of mandible (anguloarticular bone) for insertion of mandibulohyoid ligament; 7, dorsolateral process of anterohyal for insertion of mandibulohyoid ligament; 8, tip of posterior cleithral process.
Additionally to the above the genus Papiliolebias is characterized by: urohyal
, dorsal process branched (also in some species of Pituna); third epibranchial, uncinate process, forming an angle of 45-60[degrees] with distal process (also in rivulines but not in plesiolebi-asines); posttemporal, ventral process present; opercular region with regular reticulate pattern formed by iridescent colour on middle of scales contrasting with dark orangish brown pigment along entire scale margins (also in Pituna); and humeral region with iridescent blotch (also in Pituna) (Costa 2011).
The hyoid apparatus of the Chinese goose is composed of a single entoglossal bone, paired rostral basibranchial bones, an urohyal
bone, paired ceratobranchial bones, and paired epibranchial bones.
233.Peculiar articulation between prominent anteromesial process of anterior ceratohyal and broad, deep, circular concavity formed by the lateral margins of both urohyal
Hyobranchial apparatus: Comprising median unpaired glossohyal, basihyal, three basibranchials and urohyal
; and bilaterally paired dorsal and ventral hypohyals, anterior and posterior ceratohyals, interhyal, six branchiostegal rays, three hypobranchials, five ceratobranchials, four epibranchials and three pharyngobranchials (Fig.10).