One of the Christian churches which left an indelible trace on our hymnographic production over the course of many centuries was the Unity of the Brethren, together with the Utraquists
the leading church of the Bohemian Reformation.
In the Rudolfine years of relatively temperate religious coexistence--well into the 1590s-- Jindrichuv Hradec had remained home to remnants of the Unitas Fratrum, heirs to the moderate wing of Hussite reform, to Catholics both indigenous and newly summoned, to Utraquists
in uneasy communion with Rome, and of course to Lutherans, whose numbers before 1620 ought not be underestimated.
An informal coalition of pro-Reformation Catholics and Utraquists
in Moravia had been in existence since 1523.
The first, that the historiographical tradition refers to as Utraquists
, a reference to the communion in both kinds (sub specie utraque), and it was linked to the University of Prague and the Bethlehem Chapel.
Sadly, the monks of Emmaus eventually joined the heretical Hussite Utraquists
, who demanded, among other things, communion under both species as in the Byzantine liturgy.
But the ideal of concord that Erasmus had in mind did not, I think, hinder the inclusion of Arians and the Bohemian Utraquists
, or later in his life, his acceptance of coexistence of Catholics and Protestants in Germany and Switzerland.
This agreement stated that the Utraquists
could in good faith adhere to the Four Prague Articles within the Czech lands.
Instead, they saw the Utraquists
as going back too close to Rome and thus, yearning for the perceived purity and simplicity of the early church, broke away from the Utraquist
The most disappointing essay is Kavka's on Bohemia, which is confusing in the density of its references to Utraquists
, Evangelicals, neo-Utraquists, Taborites, Hussites, revolutionary Taborite Hussites, Radical Hussites, sects of the Taborite-Waldensian kind, Brethren, Melanchthonian Calvinists who are a variety of neo-Utraquists, and so forth.
As a sacred song, we also find this variant of the Credo in the 15th century with the Czech Utraquists
, (2) who also struggled with similar liturgical questions during the Bohemian Reformation.
While his 2003 study, Finding the Middle Way: The Utraquists
' Liberal Challenge to Rome and Luther (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press), looked at the history of the Utraquists
in the context of the Reformation and the Wars of Religion, his current study seeks to trace the longer half-life of Utraquist
ideas in the intellectual ferment of the Bohemian national revival of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Besides the parish churches of the Utraquists
, there were in Prague Catholic churches with adjacent monasteries, belonging to various religious orders.