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Invasive methods to assess maximal urinary bladder capacity include VCUG, urodynamics, and uroflowmetry.
The imaging guidelines in use at the pediatric division of our hospital during the study period recommended the performance of US examination during hospitalization or shortly after hospitalization in all cases of UTI in young infants, a VCUG examination after 6-8 weeks following the discharge from the hospital.
VCUG demonstrated grade III VUR 3 months later, and the cystostomy catheter was removed after clamping for 1 week without febrile UTI.
The number of patients with a normal Ultra sound who would need to undergo VCUG to detect one case of high-grade VUR was 70; the number needed to test to detect one case of low-grade VUR was 4, she said.
The causes of prenatal hydronephrosis were defined after serial ultrasounds renal scans and VCUG.
A VCUG provides more anatomic details, particularly of the bladder and urethra, but its disadvantages are radiation, the requirement for vesical catheterization, and a susceptibility to UTls (10,11).
In cases of VUR, the VCUG will also be repeated periodically to see if the condition is spontaneously resolving, which it often does over time.
A recent report suggests that nitrous oxide is as effective as midazolam for VCUGs, but requires a shorter recovery time (Keidan et al.
The VCUG imaging study showed a normal appearing urethra and no evidence of reflux from the bladder.
The authors found that factors related to the child's family predicted children's memory errors and level of stress, and that greater prior knowledge of the VCUG procedure was associated with the number of correct responses to questions about the procedure.
Only 99 kidneys (32%) showed vesicoureteral reflux on VCUG.
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