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 (Toohey and Gummow JJ); Vairy v Wyong Shire Council (2005) 223 CLR
(93) Konkretne Lecha Walesy a Alexandra Kwasniewskeho (byvali prezidenti Polska), Vaclava Havla (byvaly prezident CR), Michala Kovace (byvaly prezident Slovenska), Emila Constantinescu (byvaly prezident Rumunska), Valdase Adamkuse (byvaly prezident Litvy), Vairy Vike-Freibergy (byvala prezidentka Lotysska) a Marta Laara (byvaly premier Estonska).
The dual-band GSM GPRS 900/1800 ZTE Vairy Touch has a PDA style touch screen with a 1.3 megapixel camera, Bluetooth and an FM radio in addition to standard voice, SMS, MMS and Multimedia functions.
Two similar cases with a similar judgment by his Honour--with Heydon J in both cases--were Vairy v Wyong Council (2005) 223 CLR 422; Mulligan v Coffs Harbour Council (2005) 223 CLR 486.
Naturellement, 'e eez vairy Frainch, wiz a 'eady whiff of tradition about him, like the cork in a fine claret or a very runny piece of brie.
The cases of Vairy v Wyong Shire Council ('Vairy') (58) and Mulligan v Coifs Harbour City Council ('Mulligan') (59) both concerned a plaintiff who had suffered serious spinal injury after diving into water of unknown depth.
In contrast, McHugh J sounded a note of caution in Vairy and adverted to a more traditional approach when he stated that '[t]he obviousness of the risk goes to the issue of the plaintiff's contributory negligence, rarely to the discharge of the defendant's duty.' (62) Similarly, Hayne J stated that 'the focus of inquiry [at the breach of duty stage] must remain upon the putative tortfeasor, not upon the person who has been injured'.
(7) This 'shift' can be seen in the decisions of Romeo v Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory (1998) 192 CLR 431 ('Romeo'): Woods v Multi-Sport Holdings Pty Ltd (2002) 208 CLR 460 (' Woods'); Cole v South Tweed Heads' Rugby League Football Club Ltd (2004) 217 CLR 469; Vairy v Wyong Shire Council (2005) 223 CLR 422 ('Vairy'); Mulligan v Coffs Harbour City Council (2005) 223 CLR 486 ('Mulligan'); Neindorf v Junkovic (2005) 222 ALR 631 ('Neindorf).
(81) See Pyrenees (1998) 192 CLR 330, 393-4 (Gummow J); Romeo v Conservation Commission (NT) (1998) 192 CLR 431, 484 (Kirby J); Crimmins v Stevedoring Industry Finance Committee ('Crimmins') (1999) 200 CLR 1, 101 (Hayne J); Graham Barclay Oysters (2002) 211 CLR 540, 556 (Gleeson C J), 664 (Callinan J); Vairy (2005) 223 CLR 422, 451 (Gummow J).
Later in Vairy (2005) 223 CLR 422, 451, his Honour reasoned that if there was any life left in the policy--operational distinction, then 'the mere circumstance that a function is quasi-legislative should suffice as a basis upon which to describe it as a policy function.' Gleeson CJ took a slightly different view in Graham Barclay Oysters (2002) 211 CLR 540, 557, in which he held that 'the reasonableness of legislative or quasi-legislative activity is generally non-justiciable' (emphasis added).
That case has survived attacks on it, but appellate efforts at reading it down are inevitably weakened by the fact that decisions regarding 'breach' issues usually have less precedent status than decisions on 'duty' issues: see Vairy (2005) 223 CLR 422; Mulligan v Coffs Horbour City Council (2005) 223 CLR 486; New South Wales v Fahv (2007) 236 ALR 406.
(8) Cattanach (2003) 215 CLR 1, 32 (on 'wrongful birth'), 33-4 (on 'legal policy'); Esanda Finance Corporation v Peat Marwick Hungerfords (1995) 188 CLR 241,299 ('Esanda') (on 'assumption of responsibility' and 'reliance'); Hill v Van Erp (1995) 188 CLR 159, 229-30 (on 'assumption of responsibility' and 'known reliance'); Pyrenees Shire Council v Day (1998) 192 CLR 330, 385-8 (on 'general reliance'), 393 (on the 'policy/operational distinction'); Vairy v Wyong Shire Council (2005) 223 CLR 422, 451 (on the 'policy/operational distinction').
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