19-23; idem, "Becoming God's Body: The KAVOD in Valentinianism
," in Society of Biblical Literature 1995 Seminar Papers, ed.
Sethianism or Valentinianism
. Therefore, the Dutch scholar avoids using the notion of Gnosticism.
Pamphilus records that Origen is accused for using homoousios to refer to Christ's relationship with the Father (rightly so, according to Edwards), an accusation which implies Valentinianism
in the third century, but becomes the litmus test of orthodoxy in the fourth.
He also draws on materials associated with the eastern Valentinian Theodotus in order to distinguish the more primitive Christology, soteriology, and protology of eastern Valentinianism
from the more elaborate theories of the western systems.
As with Valentinianism
, with whose abstractions it has much in common, it is difficult to summarise its tenets.
For example, instead of directly comparing Tatian's Oration with Valentinianism
, she chooses instead to argue against the conclusions of R.M.
"Valentinus and Valentinianism
." In The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed.
Here one must query the use of the word `spirit' to translate [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in a passage from Hippolytus relating to Valentinianism
For example, in Valentinianism
, Jesus Christ was considered as God's Emissary, while in Sethianism it was Seth.
The major part of the dissertation is a detailed commentary on Ignatius, Ephesians 16-20, which argues that the formula of faith in 18.2 has no parallel on an early dating and is specifically anti-Valentinian and that the "Star Hymn" in chapter 19 can be interpreted only on the basis of Valentinianism
(Lechner suggests it is a parody of the Valentinian myth of the birth of the Redeemer in the Pleroma).
For example, in commenting on the passage factus ex muliere in his commentary on Galatians, c.4, lesson 2, Thomas unpacks deep christological significance out of this one phrase arguing that it excludes both Nestorianism and Valentinianism
as well as shows that Mary is the Mother of God.(69) Examples could be multiplied indicating Thomas's confidence in the pregnant meaning of the literal sense, a meaning that even the human author may not fully appreciate.
A further point relates to the development of the Gnostic systems: on the one hand it was claimed that Valentinus and his school had developed and further Christianized the older vulgar gnosis represented by AJ; on the other there were those who interpreted the statements of Irenaeus to mean that this vulgar gnosis itself derived from Valentinianism
. The main stream of scholarship, accepting the first position, on the whole adhered to Schmidt's view of the priority of AJ over the version in Irenaeus, and indeed it was claimed that by removing the Christian element we could get back to a pre-Christian form of the Gnostic myth.