Most specimens were collected at the Kairei vent field
(25[degrees]19.2253'S, 70[degrees]2.4217'E, depth 2420 m), and a smaller population was collected from the Edmond vent field
(23[degrees]52.6823'S, 69[degrees]35.8013'E, depth 3280 m).
She's preparing for a perilous deep-sea dive in a submersible craft that will take her to the largest uncharted hydrothermal vent field
in the world, far below the 'plunging icebergs and blue-black top' of the Greenland Sea.
Because the permeability of the oceanic crust varies with depth and from one vent field
to another, various regimes of seawater circulation are expected to occur, affecting the chemistry of the hydrothermal fluids [9, 10].
Blackman et al., "An off-axis hydrothermal vent field
near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30[degrees]N," in Nature, vol.
"The common knowledge of vent field
distribution--that they're typically separated by tens or hundreds of kilometers--was not telling the whole story," says Edward Baker, an oceanographer at the University of Washington in Seattle.
As it turned out, that day in Redfield wasn't his last chance to peer into a vent field
or go to sea himself on a scientific expedition.
(The only other location where carbonate chimneys are known to exist in the deep sea is the "Lost City" vent field
in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.) Additionally, the rock samples had a smell of diesel, which the researchers attribute to the influence of hot hydrothermal fluids converting organic matter in the sediments of the basin into hydrocarbons similar to petroleum.
The vents -- baptised the Beebe Vent Field
in honour of the first scientist to venture into the deep ocean -- were discovered on the Caribbean seafloor in the Cayman Trough, south of the Cayman Islands.
The vents, which the team named the Beebe Vent Field
after the first scientist to venture into the deep ocean, are gushing hot fluids that are unusually rich in copper, and shooting a jet of mineral-laden water four times higher into the ocean above than other deep-sea vents.
elevatus from different zones within a vent field
. The amount of FAP varied widely between zones and Mullineaux et al.
In 2001, biologists studying a vent field
in the Indian Ocean discovered an armour-plated snail that used iron sulphides in its shell instead of the usual calcium carbonate.