In situ single pass intestinal perfusion was used to investigate the absorption sites of three constituents in the small intestine, as well as the influence of drug concentrations, concentrations of P-gp inhibitor verapamil hydrochloride
, concentrations of MRP2 inhibitor probenecid, and concentrations of energy inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol, in order to discuss the absorption mechanism of the constituents and influent factors (5).
Examples of CCBs include bepridil (Vasocor[R]), amiodipine besylate (Norvasc[R]), and verapamil hydrochloride
Doxorubicin, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), rhodamine 123 (Rho123), verapamil hydrochloride
and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoleum) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich GmbH, Germany.
Chemicals: All the chemicals, solvents, and reagents used in the experiments include: acetylcholine chloride (ACh), atropine sulphate, potassium chloride (KCl), verapamil hydrochloride
, l-carrageenin, aspirin, propylgallate (PG), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and calcium chloride (CaCl2) were purchased from Sigma Chemicals Company, St.
The following salts and drugs were used: NaCl, Ca[Cl.sub.2], NaHP[O.sub.4], NaHC[O.sub.3], glucose (Panreac), KCl, Mg[Cl.sub.2], K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4] and MgS[O.sub.4] (Probus), ascorbic acid (Prolabo), phenylephrine hydrochloride, acetylcholine chloride, indomethacin, LNAME, L-arginine, D-arginine, ODQ, dipyridamole, glibenclamide, dimethylsulfoxide, verapamil hydrochloride
, sodium nitroprusside, atropine sulfate, and propranolol hydrochloride (Sigma-Aldrich).
(6,15) Baltodano and colleagues studied 8 elderly patients suffering from NLC refractory to treatment with quinine sulfate who were treated with verapamil hydrochloride
, 120 mg, at bedtime.