(91) Even in the late 2nd and early 3rd centuries, when vexillations of XV Apollinaris or XII Fulminata manned (never simultaneously) Trapezus, a vexillation of XV Apollinaris garrisoned Pityus, another legionary vexillatio of unknown origin was (at least during Hadrian's reign) at Phasis, and auxilia unit(s) inhabited Apsarus, Roman forces in the eastern Euxine probably never numbered 3000.
In any case, Vespasian ordered the vexillation (Tac.
(68) A recent explanation of the 3000 'hoplites' as vexillations from the Moesian legions V Macedonica, VII Claudia, and VIII Augusta hardly convinces.
(79) Where in this picture (unless vexillations be assumed) can one find 3000 legionaries on the Euxine, especially as some assert Josephus' 'hoplites' must be legionaries?
(71) Wheeler 2000:275-76; vexillations only: Von Domaszewski 1892:210-11, followed by Sarnowski 2006b:88.
Archaeologists have long known of the existence of a large, vexillation
fort in the town centre, dating from about AD50, but excavations over the past 25 years have hinted at a smaller, later, second fort.