After the war, the League of Nations gave the three former vilayets
, or provinces, of Mosul, Baghdad and Basra to the British, who created a monarchy to run the client state they named Iraq.
The Sharif and McMahon correspondences partially coincided with the secret negotiations between Britain and France of what became the Sykes-Picot Agreement, according to which "France was to control southern Turkey, Syria, the northern Levant, and part of northern Iraq; Britain was to administer the vilayets
of Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq; for its part Russia would acquire Istanbul and Armenia" (Johnson, p.
Ottoman Syria was divided into four Vilayets
: the Vilayet
of Aleppo, the Villayet of Day Az-Zor, the Vilayet
of Damascus, and the Vilayet
of Beirut (ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA, 2017).
They also quote the official Turkish statistics of 1905 compiled by Hilmi Pasha for the vilayets
of Thessaloniki and Bitola which note that in these two vilayets
there were 678,910 'Greeks' and 385,729 'Bulgarians'' (Vavouskos 1973:9).
The formation of Iraq: Iraq was formed in 1921 out of the two old Ottoman vilayets
(provinces) of Basra and Baghdad.
Britain eventually stitched Iraq together out of three Ottoman vilayets
- Mosul, Baghdad and Basra, laying the foundation for a century of instability and violence.
Exactly a century later, the regional and global implications of Syria render it as the world powers' high school reunion of the First World War After all, both Iraq and Syria are perhaps not significantly different, or worse off, in terms of state structures and intermediary institutions than how both states left of World War I as Ottoman vilayets
10 speech, Erdogan called his victory a "triumph for all vilayets
" (an Ottoman term for the empire's provinces outside Anatolia), emphatically repeating this by calling them by name: Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Syria and other currently independent states.
Should they instead let the nations dissolve into their ethnic cantons (or "vilayets
," as the Ottomans called them)?
After expelling the British installed Hashemite ruler of Damascus in 1920, France, more aware of the ethnic mosaic than their cross-Channel collaborators, actually created five separate Levantine states based on the Ottoman vilayets
: Greater Lebanon, an Alawite mountain state, a Druze mountain state, the State of Aleppo, and the State of Damascus.
that comprise the Caucasus Emirate appear to be increasingly autonomous in nature.
One such assessment belittled Abdurrezzak as obsessed with a hatred of Turks, arguing that his ambitions "owed more to a personal desire to get revenge against the Turks than to his worries for his fellow tribesmen." Out of a thirst for vengeance, he allegedly wished to divert a significant portion of the funds the Kurds had raised from the building of schools to financing guerrilla bands in the vilayets
of Erzurum and Van.