The last, unfortunately, had no choice on the matter because they would lose their jobs and more unless they denounced the Mau Mau and refused to take the oath.DIMMED HOPESA year later, the only people who were laughing were the same ones collectively known as Ngati (homeguards), the village elite who had not been dispossessed of their land and property during the notorious villagisation
Instead, the logic was that the more that legacy or outgrowth of its roots in the form of capitalist and other modes of production could be embraced through forces of modernisation/denied through 'villagisation
' projects, the more developed/post-developed the ex-colonies would be.
During the villagisation
process in 1974, whereby people were urged to establish permanent settlements as a control of previously scattered rural population, land clearing for settlement and farming started.
(1996) '"Pillaging Jesus": healing churches and the villagisation
of Kinshasa', Africa 66 (4): 555-86.
Population redistribution, which started at the time of villagisation
, increased pressure on land located close to the villages.
In Guatemala, Megan Ybarra (2012: 488) notes how this practice is still used today by state and paramilitary forces promoting villagisation
, using 'counterinsurgency as a spatial practice to enforce a separation between nature and agriculture' as a means to control rural populations.
HRW said communities -- mainly pastoralists -- are being forcibly moved under the government's "villagisation
" program, which Addis Ababa says will help rural citizens access key services such as education and health care.
Moreover, to forget that their rudimentary weapons were countered by bullets, bombers, detention camps, the villagisation
of people, and confiscation of property is to view only one-half of the equation.