Rheumatic and musculoskeletal features of Whipple disease
: a report of 29 cases.
Zeitz, "Illness and immune manifestations in Whipple disease
, differential rheumatic diseases diagnosis," Der Internist, vol.
whipplei was first considered to be an uncommon bacterium that causes Whipple disease
, a rare chronic disease (10).
The early stages of malakoplakia should be differentiated from Whipple disease
, atypical mycobacterial tuberculosis, histiocytic storage disorders, and fungal infections.
The differential diagnosis includes other causes of foamy macrophage aggregates, such as Rhodococcus equi and Whipple disease
. Other nontubercular mycobacteria occasionally cause liver disease as well, including Mycobacterium kansasii and bacillus Calmette-Guerin.
Differential diagnosis includes idiopathic endophthalmitis or systemic associations: parasitic (toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis), bacterial (tuberculosis, syphilis, Lyme disease, brucellosis, endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis, cat-scratch disease), viral (CMV retinitis, HIV microangiopathy), fungal (fungal infection has not been found), neurological (multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, Behget syndrome), rheumatic (spondyloarthropathies, juvenile arthritis), gastro-intestinal (Crohn disease, Whipple disease
Montgomery, "Whipple disease
a century after the initial description: increased recognition of unusual presentations, autoimmune comorbidities, and therapy effects," The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol.
According to our previously established criteria, 10 (55.5%) patients had a negative or weakly positive serologic profile, as is observed for patients with classic Whipple disease
, and 8 (44.5%) patients had a frankly positive profile, as is observed for chronic carriers.
The primary histologic differential diagnosis for cardiac sarcoidosis includes giant cell myocarditis, idiopathic (nonspecific) granulomatous myocarditis, tuberculous myocarditis, fungal myocarditis, and Whipple disease
. A broader histologic differential would include systemic lupus erythematosus, acute rheumatic carditis, rheumatoid nodules, Takayasu disease, Wegener granulomatosis, giant cell arteritis, syphilis, Erdheim-Chester disease, and ischemic cardiomyopathy.
To the Editor: Tropheryma whipplei causes Whipple disease
, a rare multisystemic disorder that affects mainly middle-aged white men and is most widely distributed in Europe and North America (1).
is a chronic inflammatory disorder that involves multiple organ systems, typically the gastrointestinal tract and musculoskeletal system.
Two diagnoses were considered: malakoplakia and Whipple disease