Teams engaged in a lesson study process following each lesson, a process originating in Japan in which peers observe each other teach in turn and debrief each lesson soon after it is taught (Wiburg
& Brown, 2007).
Moreover, according to studies by Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg
(as cited in Lin, 2009), there are twelve attributes of how technology enriches the second language learning environment.
The concept of "digital equity" reflects concerns about access to technology for underserved populations (Becket, 2008; Brown, Higgins, & Hartley, 2001; Norris, Sullivan, Poirot, & Soloway, 2003; Solomon, 2002; Wiburg
, 2003), individuals with disabilities (McLaughlin, 2010; Skiba et al, 2008), and rural communities (Cox & Lynch, 2006).
By adopting an inquiry stance on their practice that involves the systematic collection, analysis and reporting of data, educators design, test and revise one or more lessons (Rock and Wilson 2005; Wiburg
and Brown 2007).
2003: Technology and Teaching English Language Learners.
Specifically, Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg
(2003) state that the use of computer technology fosters interaction and presents students' language in a graphically and linguistically enhanced manner.
and Brown (2007) implied that high-quality technology PD is designed to empower with the skills necessary to use technology to foster exemplary learning environments.
Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg
(2003) suggest that although access to technology is important to students attempting to learn a second language, of greater concern for these students are the ways technology is used.
, associate dean for the College of Education.
Based on these studies, it is evident that training and a shift in teaching practices are key themes in literature for online instructors (Care & Scanlan, 2001; Cross, 1981; Norton & Wiburg
, 1998; Palloff & Pratt, 2001).
Additional support for the use of online resources has emerged from studies evaluating whether online resources can promote culturally responsive learning environments for diverse groups of students (Damarin, 1998; Merryfield, 2001; Stafford-Levy & Wiburg
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, a behaviorist model for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) existed in which language instruction was introduced in the form of drill and practice (Butler-Pascoe & Wiburg
, 2003; Stevens, 1989).