The conventional methods routinely used include detection of Salmonella typhi in blood, urine, stool, and bone marrow aspirate cultures and antibody detection by the Widal test
.3 However, due to documented cases of false positive results in the past, Widal test
is denoted as obsolete.
was done by adding 0.5 ml of Salmonella typhi O, Salmonella Typhi H, Salmonella paratyphi A(H) and Salmonella paratyphi B(H) antigens respectively in test tubes with diluted sera of 1:30.1:60, 1:120, 1:240 and 1:480 concentration and also control of 0.5 ml normal saline.
Any time my children had fever, they will be tested for Typhoid Fever using a Laboratory test called Widal Test
which always confirmed that they have Typhoid Fever.
Half (50%) of the GP's used widal test
and blood culture for confirmation of the typhoid followed by 32% GP's who confirmed typhoid through typhidot while 11% GP's used TLC and Widal test
and only 7% GP's used blood culture and bone marrow culture for the confirmation of typhoid.
was done by Tube agglutination using various dilutions for detection of agglutinins (O and H) and Significant titer was taken as 1:80 & above for O antibodies (TO) and 1:160 & above for H antibodies (TH) (2).
Renal function tests were normal, Widal test
result was negative and blood culture was reported as "no growth".
The Widal test
; rapid card test; peripheral blood examination for malaria; and serologies for leptospiral, scrub typhus and dengue were negative.
(2) The Widal test
which was positive with a titre of < 1/160 for both somatic and flagellar antibodies.
Results for all 31 were negative for malaria and dengue; the Widal test
of serum samples for enteric fever from 1 student and 2 local residents showed high antibody titers against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.
However, in developing countries, culture facilities are not easily available or accessible and serological tests such as Widal test
remain the mainstay of diagnosis.
During this period, all the patients who were admitted with clinical diagnosis of enteric fever were investigated for Widal test
and blood culture.
Unfortunately, neither the Widal test
, which remains in widespread use in the developing world, nor any of the other sero- diagnostic tests that have since been developed has proven sufficiently sensitive, specific, and practical to be of value in areas where this disease is endemic.5 They suffer from antibody persistence after cure or immunization especially in case of IgG, lack of determination of locally appropriate cutoffs, and cross-reactivity.6,7 Sensitivity is also an issue with PCR-based tests, due to the low venous blood bacterial concentration.