After harvest, some farmers are accustomed to re-flooding their fields immediately for the next rice planting (winter water-stored field), whereas others keep their fields dry (winter fallow
Herbicides were applied to control the weed during the winter fallow
as well as in wheat growing period.
A cotton monoculture (summer cotton--winter fallow--summer cotton) was sown either after conventional tillage (slashing of cotton plants after harvest, followed by disc-ploughing and incorporation of cotton stalks to 0.2 m, chisel ploughing to 0.3m followed by bed construction) or on permanent beds (slashing of cotton plants after harvest, followed by root cutting, incorporation of cotton stalks into beds, and bed renovation with a disc-hiller), and a cotton--wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation (summer cotton--winter wheat--summer and winter fallow
summer cotton) on permanent beds laid out in a randomised complete block design with 4 replications.
However, different proportions of winter fallow
and summer fallow periods are included in each cropping system.
In that year, fiber length of cotton grown following rye was 0.2 mm longer than cotton grown following winter fallow
when conservation tillage was used, but with disk tillage, fiber length following rye was 0.5 mm shorter than following winter fallow
(LSD 0.05 = 0.2 mm).
Calcium and magnesium concentrations were increased in the surface inch of soil under clover, compared with winter fallow
However, although losses of soil carbon due to respiration during winter fallow
were generally low in colder, semi-arid Canadian (Franzluebbers and Arshad 1996; Deen and Kataki 2003) and moist Swiss (Hermle et al.
The average gross margin results reported thus far here show the relative profitabilities in the experiments where the same system was used in the same field over time, but growers need to consider the whole--farm impacts of these rotations also, since cotton--winter fallow--cotton is a 1-year 'cycle' of cotton winter fallow
, whereas cotton--wheat is in fact a 2-year rotation of cotton--wheat--summer fallow winter fallow
Their own study of crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Georgia indicated that a crimson clover cover crop system was less profitable than winter fallow
or a grass cover crop at average sorghum and nitrogen prices, although Ott (19) found that crimson clover became the most profitable system when the price of nitrogen fertilizer became sufficiently high.
From October 2000 until April 2005, a cotton (2000-01)-wheat (2001)-sorghum (2001-02)-winter fallow (2002)-cotton (2002-03)-wheat (2003)-summer and winter fallow
(2003-04)-cotton (2004-05) sequence was sown in all plots to evaluate the residual effects of the previous rotations.
The experimental site was thus transformed into a split-plot design where main plots were winter cover management treatments (winter fallow
, rye for no-tillage mulch, and rye harvested for silage).
This simple yet groundbreaking technology will allow growers to control weeds in summer and winter fallows
with greater flexibility for use in situations that restrict the use of herbicide application, such as wind, heat, surface temperature inversions and herbicide resistance.