Sound recordings are not on the statutory list of nine categories of "commissioned" works that may qualify as works for hire
, but there has been some speculation the labels would try to challenge terminations by claiming that an album falls into a category that does qualify, like a collective work or a compilation.
Works for Hire
. Hiring freelance designers can be cost-effective but carries risks.
Playboy sued, claiming it was the sole owner of copyrights in the Nagel paintings because they were "works for hire
." The court ruled that some paintings were works for hire
and others were not, depending on whether the wording on the checks paid to Nagel created a written work-for-hire contract, and whether the individuals who cashed the checks were authorized by Nagel to enter into that contract.
There is a fundamental conflict with academic freedom when traditional academic works are considered "works for hire
." For academia to be a haven of free inquiry, faculty members need to be able to produce works that reflect their own ideas and theories rather than those of the university's administration.
There are two types of works that may be considered works for hire
. Section 101 provides a work for hire is: