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 (wō-vō′kə) Also called Jack Wilson. 1858?-1932.
Paiute religious leader who founded the Ghost Dance movement. The movement faded when a number of its followers, thought to have supernatural protection, were massacred at Wounded Knee (1890).
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


(wəˈvoʊ kə)

c1856–1932, Northern Paiute religious leader: revived the ghost dance religion 1889.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
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They'll be joined by acts including Viagra Boys, 404, Alex Lahey, Angie McMahon, Bess Atwell, Bessie Turner, Crows, Dancing on Tables, Dylan, Fatherson, Faye Webster, Heavy Lungs, James Gillespie, Kojaque, Love Sick, Max Rad, Mini Mansions, Miss Grit, Missio, ONR, Rachel Chinouriri, Rews, Sons of an Illustrious Father, Sun Silva, Swimminggirls, Wasuremono and Wovoka Gentle.
(28) Most importantly, Hay drew on his many contacts with Native American communities: Hay participated in Hopi rituals, pan-tribal Native American dances, and even met Wovoka, a "two spirit" Paiute sage.
Michael Matz (pictured) 67 trainer of Barbaro & Union Rags; Art Madrid 50 US champion apprentice 1985; Ian Dudgeon 73 trainer of Colondine & Wovoka; Anthony Speelman 77 owner of Zoffany & Cliveden; Peter Nelson 77 owner-breeder of According To Pete; Hugh McCalmont 76 former jointowner of Yeomanstown Lodge Stud; Richard Hale 49 rider of Sillars Stalker & Four Trix; Derrick Blake 70 former clerk of the scales; Peter Easterby 64 owner with Mick Easterby; Jack Warrell 66 head man to Bill Gredley; Jane Torday 69 recipient of Roger Mortimer's letters Please notify birthday greetings to us at least one week before publication HORSE PLAY ANSWERS Easy as 1-2-3 1.
Spiritual healers profiled include Ghost Dance prophet Wovoka, medicine people Kenneth and Rita Coosewoon, and Warm Springers healer Wilson Wewa.
There is furthermore an interesting example from North American material, of the leader of the Ghost Dance, Wovoka, (5) who twenty years later became the leader of a different tribal group, which dramatizes the relationship between the "fullness of time" and the personality and message of the prophet.
In 1889-90 Wovoka, the Paiute prophet, inspired a new ritual--the Ghost Dance.
He remembers listening to his grandmother and the other elders tell the old stories, many of them about the prophecies of Wovoka, the Paiute mystic and creator of the Ghost Dance movement, which was said to have the power to bring back the dead and drive White interlopers out of Indian lands.
In (1889), a Paiute from Nevada named Wovoka brought the message of what journalists referred to as "the messiah craze," (18) which consisted of a messianic message cast in Native spirituality.
In Oklahoma, 3,000 Native Americans attend a Ghost Dance, performing the ritual each evening for two weeks, though spiritual leader Wovoka, champion of the religious movement/performance, had advised presenting it far less often.
In the late 1800s, when the Paiute tribesman and prophet Wovoka began to share with his people the vision that would become the basis for the Ghost Dance, he did so amidst an atmosphere of fear and desperation among tribes of the Great Plains (if not everywhere in the United States), amidst the growing pressure of reeducation initiatives established by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (itself a possessive and connotatively charged nomenclature which represents "a liminal category, in which Indian is the foreign possessive name for a category, territory, which is the white man's future: a state to be"), and the shrinking of their territory due to colonization.
The concept of the Ghost Dance was introduced in 1889 by Wovoka, also known as Jack Wilson, a Northern Paiute.
Wovoka, a 19th century Paiute shaman who was raised by Christian missionaries, taught that by living piously and by performing a type of round dance called "the ghost dance," the Europeans would be vanquished, the buffalo would return to the plains, and the way of life of people aboriginal to North America would be restored.