All 53 patients infected with XDR-TB
were from KwaZulu Natal, an area of South Africa in which the TB/HIV coinfection rate is greater than 80%.
In May 2015, TB Alliance and partners launched the world's first clinical study- the Nix-TB Study-to test a new XDR-TB
drug regimen called BPaL, consisting of Bedaquiline (B), Pretomanid (Pa), and Linezolid (L) in patients who have no other treatment options.
Table 3 shows that all the patients with MDR- and XDR-TB
were using the mask and sputum disposal bin.
Definitions of types of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) Type Definition Multidrug-resistant TB Resistance to isoniazid (MDR-TB) and rifampicin (21) Extensively drug-resistant TB MDR-TB plus resistance to (XDR-TB
) any fluoroquinolone and any second-line injectable (either kanamycin, amikacin or capreomycin) (21) Pre-extensively drug-resistant MDR-TB resistant to either TB (pre-XDR-TB) a second-line injectable drug or a fluoroquinolone Extremely drug-resistant TB These terms have been used (XXDR-TB) or Totally by various authors to drug-resistant TB (TDR-TB) describe strains with more extensive patterns of resistance (to all first-line and second-line drugs).
can be cured using five or more drugs as an aggressive treatment for up to two years.
We were then amazed to discover that vitamin C by itself not only sterilized the drug-susceptible TB, but also sterilized MDR-TB and XDR-TB
strains," he explained.
Globally, both the number of MDR TB patients treated as well as the projected numbers for MDR-TB cases to be treated in 2007 and 2008, as reported by National TB Programmes (NTPs), are far below the targets set out by the Global XDR-TB
A survey conducted by WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on data from 2000-2004 found that XDR-TB
occurs in all regions of the world, but most frequently in the countries of the former Soviet Union and Asia.
Professor Peter Davis, secretary of TB Alert in the UK said: "XDR-TB
is an extremely serious form of TB.
The report, Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance in the World, is based on information collected between 2002 and 2006 on 90,000 TB patients in 81 countries.- It also found that extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB
), a virtually untreatable form of the respiratory disease, has been recorded in 45 countries.The report also found a link between HIV infection and MDR-TB.
Such funding would also be directed at strategies focusing on a form of TB that is extensively drug-resistant, commonly known as XDR-TB
. Resistant to all of the most effective anti-TB drugs, XDR-TB
was only recently defined by global health officials and is causing great concern for its potential to turn back years of progress already made at stemming TB's spread.