xenobiotic

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xen·o·bi·ot·ic

 (zĕn′ə-bī-ŏt′ĭk, zē′nə-)
adj.
Not a natural component of a particular organism or biological system. Used of chemical compounds.
n.
A xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

xenobiotic

(ˌzɛnəʊbaɪˈɒtɪk)
n
(Chemistry) a chemical foreign to or not produced by an organism
adj
(Chemistry) pertaining to a chemical compound foreign to or not produced by an organism
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

xen•o•bi•ot•ic

(ˌzɛn ə baɪˈɒt ɪk, -bi-, ˌzi nə-)

n.
a chemical or substance that is foreign to an organism or biological system.
[1915–20]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Basically, the rise in exposure to environmental pollutants is increasing the total body burden of xenobiotics. Many of these xenobiotics have been shown to disrupt healthy bodily barriers, which then lead to the production of modified self and autoimmune disease.
Objective: Biotransformation of xenobiotics is critical for their metabolism and removal from the body which is carried out by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.
The CYP2E1 is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics, including toxic and therapeutic agents, and is involved in oxidative bioactivation of hydrophobic chemicals, such as benzene and acrylamide.
Among the topics are toxicogenomics in vitro: gene expression signatures for differentiating genotoxic mechanisms, using transcriptomics to evaluate thresholds in genotoxicity dose-response, human embryonic stem cells as biological models to examine the impact of xenobiotics on the genome and epigenome, applying transcriptomics in exposed human populations: benzene as an example, and the parallelogram approach to assess the human relevance of toxicogenomics-derived toxicity pathways in human health risk assessment.
According to the company, Dr Xu one of the pioneers in developing cultured human hepatocytes as a tool to study metabolism of xenobiotics and induction of P450 isozymes.
All organisms are exposed unavoidably to chemicals (or xenobiotics such as drugs, pesticides, industrial chemicals, pollutants) with increasing industrialization and changing living conditions.
CYP3A4 accounts for about 30% in the human hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics. The defending mechanism of drug or xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, particularly CYP superfamily has been found to be altered by both genetic polymorphisms and the environmental factors.
Pigs are encountering a large number of xenobiotics potentially harmful consequences, which is not only bad for animal health and pork quality but also bad for human health.
Biotransformation of drugs, xenobiotics, and environmental pollutants leads to the overproduction of free radicals in the body leading to lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and oxidative damage.
Francesca Caloni (DIME VET, University of Milan), president of CELLTOX, presented a lecture entitled "Predictive models in veterinary toxicology: in vitro epithelial barrier." The main concept was the use of in vitro 3D epithelial barrier models as predictive tools for toxicological adverse effects of xenobiotics and their bioavailability in animals and humans.
Pharmacokinetics, poisoning, substance abuse, and breast-feeding toxicokinetics are explained relevant to how xenobiotics may behave differently in these conditions.