Victim souls have not been limited to vicarious suffering; as a branch of mysticism they are frequently associated with mystical phenomena such as bilocation, clairvoyance, visions, xenoglossy
, and stigmata.
The recordings, spanning more than a hundred years, are divided into: trance speech (words spoken by mediums in a presumed altered state of consciousness during a seance), direct voices (speech in a seance without an apparent natural source), precognitive claims, xenoglossy
(speaking in a tongue apparently never learned by the speaker), glossolalia ("speaking in tongues" or in an incomprehensible language), paranormal music (reputedly channeled from a dead composer or interpreter), raps and haunting phenomena, and electric voice phenomena.
On ESP, we not only get descriptions and examples of telepathy and clairvoyance, and so on, but also featured are dowsing, clairsentience, xenoglossy
, and the not commonly featured "clairtaste" and "clairsmell.
He wrote two books on the subject, Xenoglossy
(Stevenson, 1974) and Unlearned Language (Stevenson, 1984).
Fontana would have done far better in this regard to discuss such xenoglossy
cases as the Sharada case--a case that has been heavily documented and moreover does far more to support the survival hypothesis than these direct-voice cases do.
From an evidential perspective, however, the chapter would have been stronger had Schmicker included a discussion of xenoglossy
Souza's project is related to xenoglossy
, and Muniz's is related to lucid dreams involving shared contents.
In emphasizing the importance of responsive xenoglossy
cases for survival research, Robert Almeder seems to be arguing for this kind of approach: He predicts that fluent, responsive xenoglossy
will be found only in "survival cases," since "there has never been such a case outside these survival cases.
In addition to ESP and PK, Kreiman discusses a variety of phenomena, among them apparitions, deathbed phenomena, haunted houses, materializations, medical diagnosis, poltergeists, recollections of "previous lives," and xenoglossy
In particular, he focuses on the Sharada case of responsive xenoglossy
to argue that investigations of survival-related phenomena have been psychologically superficial, and hence misleadingly inadequate, and that proponents of the survival hypothesis have failed to grasp the complexity and subtlety of the superpsi hypothesis and the associated problem of human skills and capacities.
In the second part of the book Ravaldini focuses on particular aspects of Bozzano's work, such as psychic phenomena in primitive societies, the precursors of spiritualism, experiences at the Circolo Scientifico Minerva with the medium Eusapia Palladino, and specific phenomena such as materialization, precognition, xenoglossy
, and psychometry.
He does caution that many of the skill-transference cases on record (such as cases of xenoglossy
involving languages linguistically related to that of the medium and the musical compositions of Rosemary Brown) involve skills continuous with the medium's previously manifested abilities rather than distinctively new skills.