Finally, in the Xunzi
'morally perfected' has become the dominant meaning of adjectival wen used to describe individuals, and uses of wen as a noun referring to the '(ideal) patterns of conventionalized behavior' have become fully established in the collectively shared vocabulary of the Zhou literary elite.
Ancient Chinese philosophers like Confucius and Mencius believed human nature was innately good, while Xunzi
thought it was evil and lacked a moral compass.
What insights can those interested in the pre-Qin Chinese thinkers Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi
glean from such American thinkers?
The Chinese philosopher Xunzi
is often credited with having said:
Governing a great state is like cooking a small fish; the same recipe serves both: mix the pickled tofu of the expatriate pedants who showed up just now, the bamboo shoots of Xunzi
, the squid ink of Mohism, and the smooth tongue of the School of Names, then cook by turning the spatula in the alternate vertical and horizontal moves of the School of Diplomacy--the great taste will make you perfectly round.
(27) Konfucyus dusuncesi icin, Dort Kitap'in yani sira (Analects, Mencius, Daxue ve Zhongy-ong), ayrica Xunzi
ve Yizhuan ogretilerine basvurmustur.
The book is an attempt to explain how pre-Qin philosophers Hanfeizi, Mozi, Guanzi, Mencius, Xunzi
, Confucius, and Laozi developed the Chinese concept of humane authority.
There is a proverb in the Xunzi
(Knoblock, 1990, p.
The way in which the concept of substance could be conveyed in Chinese thought becomes clear in chapter 22 of the Xunzi
, "The Rectification of Names." Names--and words generally--are arbitrary, but they are not assigned arbitrarily.
In history there are five different kinds of Confucians, and among them he chooses three groups as his dialogue partners: Neo-Confucians (of the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, both those who chose to be baptized and those who opposed the spread of Christianity), Cultural Nationalist Confucians (such as Xiong Shili, Mou Zongsan, and Tang Junyi), and Modern Confucians (of both the Mencian tradition--represented by Tu Wei-ming [1940-] and Liu Shuxian [1934-]--and the Xunzi
tradition [represented by Robert Neville's Boston Confucianism]).
O pensamento do filosofo confucionista Xunzi
, por exemplo, lista tres tipos de lideranca: autoridade humana, hegemonia e tirania.