In the aftermath of the Spirit Lake depredation, Inkpaduta and his band fled west to join Yanktonais
and Yanktons Sioux bands in the area of Vermillion, South Dakota.
In response to the US Government's argument in Sioux Tribe that the Teton and Yanktonais Sioux had not shown which lands east of the Missouri River had been used exclusively by each of them, Cowen CJ, for the majority at 472, distinguished cases like Iowa Tribe, supra note 84, which involved "competing groups which claimed the same territory", and stated:
However, the Teton and Yanktonais are not antagonists competing for the same territory.
Hyde estimates that, as of 1760, the Arikara population was equal to that of the entire Sioux Nation, comprising the Lakotas, Yanktons, and Yanktonais, as well as the Dakotas.
Although Lakota bands continued to utilize an ambiguous blend of trade and warfare in their relations with the villagers, the Yanktons and Yanktonais were relentless in their attacks.
Several bands of Upper Yanktonais
, originally from the area around Fort Rice, migrated up the Missouri to the area surrounding Fort Buford.
In the early years of the twentieth century when the pipe bag under discussion was made, the Assiniboines at Fort Peck were of course in the habit of producing pipe bags with Sioux style panels of quill-wrapped rawhide slats, probably under influence from the Yanktonais
with whom the they are jointly settled.