Montezuma consequently became acquainted with Yuma Frank, who led the Fort McDowell Yavapai
Nation during these years, and his cousins, one of whom, Charles Dickens, solicited Montezuma's help against the Indian Bureau and the Salt River Valley Water Users Association, both of which wanted the Yavapais
We never get a clear picture of what motivated the Yavapais
to attack the Oatmans (Mifflin suggests it was hunger) and to keep Olive, allegedly as a slave, nor do we understand why the Mohaves might then have wanted to adopt her.
The cover of Identifying Marks displays the tattooed visage of Olive Oatman, kidnapped by the Yavapais
in 1830 and marked by the Mohaves a year later.
Descriptions of the agricultural Pimas, for example, contrast sharply with those of the Apaches and Comanches, as do the dissimilar depictions of the Yavapais
Throughout the twentieth century the Fort McDowell Yavapais
fought off one scheme after another that threatened to push them away from their land.
According to linguists, they spoke a derivation of Pai and were in the Yuman language group, which connected them linguistically to the Mohaves, Yavapais
, and other Indigenous peoples along the Colorado River.
While traveling with their family to California, Oatman and her younger sister were taken captive by Yavapais
Indians on February 18, 1851.
Indians of north-central Arizona once considered themselves four peoples: Tolkepayas, Yavapes, Wipukepas, and Kwevkepayas.(2) Ethnographic studies suggest that prior to the 1860s the Yavapais
developed informal social and political structures.
Braatz to the contrary notwithstanding, nowhere on the cited pages did Garces report presiding over a peace council of Mohaves, Yavapais
, Pais, Chemehuevis, and Halchidhomas.(8)
of the Fort McDowell Reservation in Arizona clashed with government agents and missionaries in the early twentieth century over the right to hold customary dances around the Fourth of July.
Devin considered the Pais "quiet" enough to order Price into action against Yavapais
. In the late phase of conflict, the federal government looked for Pai scapegoats.