The driver's distraction is mainly caused by the 3D head rotation of the driver that can further be categorized into three types, i.e., rotation caused due to change in yaw angle
, pitch angle and roll angle (Fig.
According to the wheel/rail creep characteristics, the left and right wheel are under longitudinal creep force with different directions, which forms a yaw moment and makes the wheelset has a yaw angle
in the clockwise direction.
No rollover for bus models during double-lane change manoeuvre has been registered as the yaw angle
of none of the models exceeded the critical level.
If there is only a rotation about the w-axis by the yaw angle
[gamma], then the sensor detects the target surface and the sliding table which affect the detection result in 3 ways: (1) depth value became too large, (2) detected point will be in advance or delay from the detected frame, and (3) distorted dataset results in missing or wrong detection points.
The diagram includes the bus yaw angle
direction and yaw rate, velocity, and slip angle.
If the missile and the target are stationary and the relative distance is fixed, then the yaw angle
is a constant value of the LOS angle input, and the missile body yaw angle
is the positive rotation signal input.
[K.sub.[omega]r] = u/(L(1 + K[u.sup.2])) is steady-state yaw angle
where [eta] = [[x, y, [psi]].sup.T] is the vector of position (x, y) and yaw angle
y in the ground coordinate, v = [[u, v, r].sup.T] is the vector of advance velocity u, drifting velocity v, and yaw angular velocity r in hull coordinate.
[U.sub.2] = [k.sub.b] ([[OMEGA].sup.2.sub.4] - [[OMEGA].sup.2.sub.2]), [U.sub.3] = [k.sup.b]( [[OMEGA].sup.2.sub.3] - [[OMEGA].sup.2.sub.2]), [U.sub.4] = [k.sub.d] ([[OMEGA].sup.2.sub.1] + [[OMEGA].sup.2.sub.3] - [[OMEGA].sup.2.sub.2] - [[OMEGA].sup.2.sub.3]): the control inputs for pitch angle, roll angle, and yaw angle