In the sequential Z' model, the [Z'.sub.SSM] boson has exactly the same couplings with quarks and leptons as the SM Z boson
. With the couplings, we calculate the cross section of the process pp [right arrow] [Z'.sub.SSM] + X [right arrow] [l.sup.+][l.sup.-] + X like (31).
Prof Lucini, head of the Department of Mathematics at Swansea, said: "This topic has stimulated my imagination at least since 1983, when, as an 11-year-old, I learned from the news about the discovery at Cern - the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, of one of the most fundamental particles - the Z boson
Among the subjects being treated by RQED theory, this report is devoted to the mass-radius relation obtained for the Z boson
, and to that associated with a model of the Higgs-like boson.
Early attempts to measure the weak pion nucleon coupling, [f.sub.[pi].sup.1], were motivated by the unusually large sensitivity of the weak pion coupling to neutral currents, i.e., to the very existence of the Z boson
as a carrier of the weak force, later demonstrated by the production of Z's in high energy collisions at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN).
(16) and (17) determine the cross section with the exchange of the [gamma] photon and the Z boson
, while the expressions in (18)-(21) quantify the cross section contributions of the B-L model and of the interference, respectively.
As an example, Turner points out the accepted theoretical claim that elementary particles known as the W boson and the Z boson
had no mass when the universe first exploded into being.
The missing energy suggests, as expected, that a Z boson
was created along with the presumed Higgs boson and then decayed into a pair of neutrinos, which LEP's detectors can't pick up.
That theory predicted a new weakforce particle, called the Z boson
, which physicists discovered in 1983.
The Z boson
, which occupies a strategically central position in the standard model, serves as a particularly valuable probe of the theory.
"If that is not exciting, 2 Photons naturally combined or connected at one of their recessive ends [-YY+] to form Electrons and Neutrinos and the extra Photon [Y-, Y+, Y+-] forms the W+- and Z Bosons
. The 3 Bosons then combined with Electrons to form 5 various geometrical particles we now identified as Higgs Bosons that was discovered by CERN this year and is also confirmed by the Atomic Mass, Atomic Number and Period of each Element in each Block on the Periodic Table.
Detectors at the LHC recorded products of various Higgs decay paths, including one (shown) creating Z bosons
that produce four leptons (such as an electron, positron, muon and antimuon) and another path that ends up producing two photons.