ar- / Indo-European roots


To fit together.

Oldest form *h2erh1-, colored to *h2arh1-, with variant *h2reh1-, becoming *rē-.

Derivatives include army, harmony, inert, aristocracy, adorn, hatred, rite, arithmetic, rhyme.

I. Basic form *arə.
1. Suffixed form ar(ə)-mo-. a. arm1 from Old English earm, arm, from Germanic *armaz; b. ambry, arm2, armada, armadillo, armature, armoire, army; alarm, disarm, gendarme from Latin arma, tools, arms; c. armillary sphere from Latin armus, upper arm.
2. Suffixed form *ar(ə)-smo-. harmony from Greek harmos, joint, shoulder.
3. Suffixed form *ar(ə)-ti-. a. art1, artisan, artist; inert, inertia from Latin ars (stem art-), art, skill, craft; b. further suffixed form *ar(ə)-ti-o-. artiodactyl from Greek artios, fitting, even.
4. Suffixed form *ar(ə)-tu-. article from Latin artus, joint.
5. Suffixed form *ar(ə)-to-. coarctate from Latin artus, tight.
6. Suffixed form *ar(ə)-dhro-. arthro-; anarthrous, diarthrosis, dysarthria, enarthrosis, synarthrosis from Greek arthron, joint.
7. Suffixed (superlative) form *ar(ə)-isto-. aristocracy from Greek aristos, best.
II. Possibly suffixed lengthened o-grade form (or separate root) *ōrə-dh-.
1. ordain, order, ordinal, ordinance, ordinary, ordinate, ordo; coordination, inordinate, subordinate from Latin ōrdō, order (originally a row of threads in a loom).
2. exordium, primordial from Latin ōrdīrī, to begin to weave.
3. ornament, ornate; adorn, suborn from Latin ōrnāre, to adorn.
III. Variant *rē- (< earlier *h2reh1-).
1. rate1, ratio, ration, reason; arraign from Latin rērī, to consider, confirm, ratify.
2. Suffixed form *rē-dh-. a. (i) read, rede; dread from Old English rǣdan, to advise; (ii) hatred, kindred from Old English rǣden, -rǣden, condition. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *rēdan; b. (i) rathskeller from Old High German rāt, counsel; (ii) riddle2 from Old English rǣdels(e), opinion, riddle. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *rēdaz..
3. Zero-grade form *rə-. Germanic *radam, number, in dialectal North and West Germanic compound *hund(a)-rada- (see dekm̥)
IV. Variant root form *h2reh1i-, with zero-grades *h2rh1i- and (metathesized) *h2rih1-, the latter contracted to *rī-.
1. Suffixed metathesized zero-grade form *rī-tu-. rite from Latin rītus, rite, custom, usage.
2. Suffixed unmetathesized zero-grade form *ərəi-dhmo-. arithmetic, logarithm from Greek arithmos, number, amount.
3. rhyme from a Germanic source akin to Old High German rīm, number, series.

[Pokorny 1. ar- 55.]

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