bhā- / Indo-European roots


To shine.

Oldest form *bheh2-, colored to *bhah2-, becoming *bhā-.

Derivatives include beacon, berry, banner, fantasy, phase.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-w-.
a. beacon from Old English bēac(e)n, beacon;
b. beckon from Old English bēcnan, bīecnan, to make a sign, beckon, from Germanic denominative *bauknjan;
c. buoy from Old French boue, buoy. a-c all from Germanic *baukna-, beacon, signal.
2. Perhaps Germanic *bazja-, berry (< "bright-colored fruit").
a. berry; mulberry from Old English berie, berige, berry, and Old High German beri, berry;
b. frambesia from Old French framboise, raspberry, alteration of Frankish *brām-besi, "bramble berry".
a. bandoleer from Spanish banda, sash;
b. banderilla, banderole, banner, banneret1, banneret2 from Late Latin bandum, banner, standard. Both a and b from Germanic *bandwa-, "identifying sign" banner, standard, sash, also "company united under a (particular) banner".
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-w-es-. phos-, phot, photo-; phosphorus from Greek phōs (stem phōt-), light.
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-w-. Phaëthon from Greek phaeithein, to shine, burn.
6. Extended and suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-n-yo-. fantasy, pant1, -phane, phantasm, phantom, phase, pheno-, phenomenon; diaphanous, emphasis, epiphany, glaucophane, hierophant, phaneritic, phanerogam, Phanerozoic, phantasmagoria, phosphene, sycophant, theophany, tiffany from Greek phainein, "to bring to light" cause to appear, show, and phainesthai (passive), "to be brought to light" appear, with zero-grade noun phasis (*bhə-ti-), an appearance.

[Pokorny 1. bhā- 104.]


To speak.

Oldest form *bheh2-, colored to *bhah2-, becoming *bhā-.

Derivatives include fate, infant, prophet, abandon, banish, symphony, confess, blame.

1. fable, fabliau, fabulous, fado, fairy, fandango, fate, fay2; affable, fantoccini, ineffable, infant, infantry, preface from Latin fārī, to speak.
2. -phasia; apophasis, prophet from Greek phanai, to speak.
a. ban1 from Old English bannan, to summon, proclaim, and Old Norse banna, to prohibit, curse;
b. banal, banns; abandon from Old French ban, feudal jurisdiction, summons to military service, proclamation, Old French bandon, power, and Old English gebann, proclamation;
c. banish from Old French banir, to banish;
d. contraband from Late Latin bannus, bannum, proclamation;
e. bandit from Italian bandire, to proclaim, proscribe, banish. a-e all from Germanic suffixed form *ban-wan, *bannan, to speak publicly (used of particular kinds of proclamation in feudal or prefeudal custom; "to proclaim under penalty, summon to the levy, declare outlaw").
4. Suffixed form *bhā-ni-.
a. boon1 from Old Norse bōn, prayer, request;
b. bee1 perhaps from Old English bēn, prayer, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse bōn, prayer. Both a and b from Germanic *bōni-.
5. Suffixed form *bhā-ma.
a. fame, famous; defame, infamous from Latin fāma, talk, reputation, fame;
b. euphemism, Polyphemus from Greek phēmē, saying, speech.
6. Suffixed o-grade form *bhō-nā-. phone2, -phone, phoneme, phonetic, phono-, -phony; anthem, antiphon, aphonia, cacophonous, euphony, symphony from Greek phōnē, voice, sound, and (denominative) phōnein, to speak.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhə-to-. confess, profess from Latin fatērī, to acknowledge, admit.
8. blame, blaspheme from Greek blasphēmos, blasphemous, perhaps from *ml̥s-bhā-mo-, "speaking evil" (blas-, evil; see mel-3)

[Pokorny 2. bhā- 105.]

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