bhergh- / Indo-European roots


To hide, protect.

Oldest form *bherg̑h-, becoming *bhergh- in centum languages.
a. Germanic compound *h(w)als-berg- (see kwel-1);
b. Germanic compound *skēr-berg- (see sker-1). Both a and b from Germanic *bergan, to protect.
2. Zero-grade form *bhr̥gh-.
a. bury from Old English byrgan, to bury, from Germanic *burgjan;
b. burial from Old English byrgels, burial, from Germanic derivative *burgisli-.
a. borrow from Old English borgian, to borrow, from Germanic *borgēn, to pledge, lend, borrow;
b. bargain from Old French bargaignier, to haggle, from Germanic derivative *borganjan.

[Pokorny bherg̑h- 145.]


High; with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts.

Oldest form *bherg̑h-, becoming *bhergh- in centum languages.

Derivatives include iceberg, bourgeois, burglar, force, fortify.

a. barrow2 from Old English beorg, hill;
b. iceberg from Middle Dutch bergh, mountain;
c. inselberg from Old High German berg, mountain;
d. Germanic compound *harja-bergaz (see koro-). a-d all from Germanic *bergaz, hill, mountain.
2. belfry from Old French berfroi, tower, from Germanic compound *berg-frij-, "high place of safety" tower (*frij-, peace, safety; see prī-)
3. Zero-grade form *bhr̥gh-.
a. borough, burg from Old English burg, burh, byrig, (fortified) town;
b. burgomaster from Middle Dutch burch, town;
c. bourg, bourgeois, burgess, burglar; faubourg from Late Latin burgus, fortified place, and Old French burg, borough;
d. burgher from Old High German burgāri, townsman, from Germanic compound *burg-warōn-, "city protector" (*warōn-, protector; see wer-4) . a-d all from Germanic *burgs, hill-fort.
4. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *bhr̥gh-to-. force, fort, fortalice, forte1, forte2, fortis, fortissimo, fortitude, fortress; comfort, deforce, effort, enforce, fortify, panforte, pianoforte, reinforce from Latin fortis, strong (but this is also possibly from dher-)

[Pokorny bhereg̑h- 140.]

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