bheuə- / Indo-European roots


To be, exist, grow.

Oldest form *bheuhx.

Derivatives include be, husband, imp, physics, future, neighbor, beam.

I. Extended forms *bhwiy(o)-, *bhwī-.
1. be; forebear from Old English bēon, to be, from Germanic *biju, I am, will be.
2. fiat from Latin fierī, to become.
3. Possibly suffixed form *bhwī-lyo-, seen by some as the source of Latin fīlius, son, but this is more likely from dhē(i)-
II. Lengthened o-grade form *bhōw-. a. bondage, bound4; bustle1, husband from Old Norse būa, to live, prepare, and būask, to make oneself ready (-sk, reflexive suffix; see s(w)e-); b. Bauhaus from Old High German būan, to dwell; c. booth from Middle English bothe, market stall, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Danish bōth, dwelling, stall. a-c from Germanic *bōwan..
III. Zero-grade form *bhu-.
1. a. build from Old English byldan, to build, from bold, dwelling, house, from Germanic *buthla-; b. boodle from Middle Dutch bōdel, riches, property, from alternate Germanic form *bōthla.
2. physic, physics, physio-, physique, -phyte, phyto-, phyton; apophysis, diaphysis, diphyodont, epiphysis, euphuism, hypophysis, imp, Monophysite, neophyte, periphyton, symphysis, tracheophyte from Greek phuein, to bring forth, make grow, phutos, phuton, a plant, and phusis, growth, nature.
3. Suffixed form *bhu-tā-. a. eisteddfod from Welsh bod, to be; b. bothy from Old Irish both, a hut.
4. Suffixed form *bhu-tu-. future from Latin futūrus, "that is to be" future.
IV. Zero-grade form *bhū- (< *bhuə-).
1. a. bower1 from Old English būr, "dwelling space" bower, room; b. neighbor from Old English gebūr, dweller (ge-, collective prefix; see kom); c. Boer, boor from Middle Dutch gheboer, ghebuer, peasant. a-c all from Germanic *būram, dweller, especially farmer.
2. byre from Old English bȳre, stall, hut, from Germanic *būrjam, dwelling.
3. bylaw from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse bȳr, settlement, from Germanic *būwi-.
4. Suffixed form *bhū-lo-. phyle, phyletic, phylum; phylogeny from Greek phūlon, tribe, class, race, and phūlē, tribe, clan.
V. Zero-grade reduced suffixal form *-bhw-, in Latin compounds.
1. Latin dubius, doubtful, and dubitāre, to doubt, from *du-bhw-io- (see dwo-)
2. Latin probus, upright, from *pro-bhw-o-, "growing well or straightforward" (see per1)
3. Latin superbus, superior, proud, from *super-bhw-o-, "being above" (see uper)
VI. Possibly Germanic *baumaz (and *bagmaz), tree (? < "growing thing"). a. beam from Old English bēam, tree, beam; b. boom2 from Middle Dutch boom, tree; c. bumpkin1, bumpkin2 from Flemish boom, tree..

[Pokorny bheu- 146.]

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