bhreu- / Indo-European roots


To boil, bubble, effervesce, burn; with derivatives referring to cooking and brewing.

Oldest form *bhreuh1-.

Derivatives include brew, bread, broth, brood, breed, ferment, fervent.

1. brew from Old English brēowan, to brew, from Germanic *breuwan, to brew.
2. bread from Old English brēad, piece of food, bread, from Germanic *braudam, (cooked) food, (leavened) bread.
3. a. broth from Old English broth, broth; b. broil2; embroil, imbroglio from Vulgar Latin *brodum, broth. Both a and b from Germanic *brudam, broth.
II. Variant form *bhrē- (from *bhreə-).
1. a. brood from Old English brōd, offspring, brood; b. breed from Old English brēdan, to beget or cherish offspring, breed, from Germanic denominative *brōdjan, to rear young. Both a and b from Germanic derivative *brōd-ō, "a warming" hatching, rearing of young.
2. a. bratwurst, sauerbraten from Old High German brāt, brāto, roast meat; b. brawn from Old French braon, meat. Both a and b from Germanic derivative *brēd-ōn-, roast flesh. Both 1 and 2 from Germanic *brēdan, to warm.
III. Variant form *bhres-. a. braise, braze2, brazier2, breeze2, bresaola from Old French brese, burning coal, ember; b. braciola from Italian dialectal braṣa, burning coal; c. brazilwood from Old Spanish brasa, burning coals. a-c all from Germanic *bres-..
IV. Reduced form *bher-, especially in derivatives referring to fermentation.
1. a. Suffixed form *bher-men-, yeast. barm, barmy from Old English beorma, yeast, from Germanic *bermōn-; b. further suffixed form *bhermen-to-. ferment from Latin fermentum, yeast.
2. Extended form *bherw-. fervent, fervid, fervor; defervescence, effervesce from Latin fervēre, to be boiling or fermenting.
V. As a very archaic word for a spring.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhru-n(e)n-. bourn1, burn2 from Old English burn, burna, spring, stream, from Germanic *brunnōn-.
2. Suffixed form *bhrēw-r̥. phreatic from Greek phrear, spring.

[Pokorny bh(e)reu- 143, 2. bher- 132.]

Browse all Indo-European or Semitic roots.